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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

CAX3  -  vacuolar cation/proton exchanger 3

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on CAX3

  • We show that these mutants exhibit a 50% reduction in tonoplast Ca(2+)/H(+) antiport activity, a 40% reduction in tonoplast V-type H(+)-translocating ATPase activity, a 36% increase in tonoplast Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and increased expression of the putative vacuolar Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporters CAX3 and CAX4 [1].
  • Chimeric CAX3 constructs containing the N terminus of CAX1 were activated by CXIP1 [2].
  • Functional association of Arabidopsis CAX1 and CAX3 is required for normal growth and ion homeostasis [3].
  • When expressed in yeast, CAX4, like CAX3, failed to suppress the Ca(2+) sensitivity of yeast strains deficient in vacuolar Ca(2+) transport [4].
  • Additions of either the CAX3 or VCAX1 regulatory regions to the N terminus of an N-terminal truncated CAX1 failed to inhibit CAX1 activity [5].

Biological context of CAX3


Anatomical context of CAX3

  • An Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of CAX1, CAX3, is 77% identical (93% similar) and, when expressed in yeast, localized to the vacuole but did not suppress yeast mutants defective in vacuolar Ca(2+) transport [6].

Associations of CAX3 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of CAX3


Other interactions of CAX3

  • We show that CAX1 is predominately expressed in leaves, while CAX3 is highly expressed in roots [3].


  1. The Arabidopsis cax1 mutant exhibits impaired ion homeostasis, development, and hormonal responses and reveals interplay among vacuolar transporters. Cheng, N.H., Pittman, J.K., Barkla, B.J., Shigaki, T., Hirschi, K.D. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning and characterization of CXIP1, a novel PICOT domain-containing Arabidopsis protein that associates with CAX1. Cheng, N.H., Hirschi, K.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Functional association of Arabidopsis CAX1 and CAX3 is required for normal growth and ion homeostasis. Cheng, N.H., Pittman, J.K., Shigaki, T., Lachmansingh, J., LeClere, S., Lahner, B., Salt, D.E., Hirschi, K.D. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of CAX4, an Arabidopsis H(+)/cation antiporter. Cheng, N.H., Pittman, J.K., Shigaki, T., Hirschi, K.D. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Distinct N-terminal regulatory domains of Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporters. Pittman, J.K., Sreevidya, C.S., Shigaki, T., Ueoka-Nakanishi, H., Hirschi, K.D. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Structural determinants of Ca2+ transport in the Arabidopsis H+/Ca2+ antiporter CAX1. Shigaki, T., Cheng, N.H., Pittman, J.K., Hirschi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of the Ca2+ domain in the Arabidopsis H+/Ca2+ antiporters CAX1 and CAX3. Shigaki, T., Sreevidya, C., Hirschi, K.D. Plant Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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