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Gene Review

ACL5  -  Thermospermine synthase ACAULIS5

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ACAULIS 5, SPERMINE SYNTHASE, T20D1.50, T20D1_50
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Disease relevance of ACL5


High impact information on ACL5

  • We also found that expression of the ACL5 cDNA under the control of a heat shock gene promoter in acl5 mutant plants restores the phenotype in a heat shock-dependent manner [2].
  • We propose that ACL5/TKV is involved in vein definition (defining the boundaries between veins and nonvein regions) and in polar auxin transport, and that polyamines are involved in this process [3].
  • Here we addressed a specific role of spermine during high salt stress using an Arabidopsis double knockout-mutant plant (acl5/spms) which cannot produce spermine [4].
  • Three cDNAs with high homology to spermine (Spm) synthases in Arabidopsis were isolated from apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. MdACL5-1 and MdACL5-2 have high homology with ACL5 and MdSPMS has high homology with AtSPMS [5].
  • The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana has two genes encoding spermine synthase: ACAULIS5 (ACL5), whose loss-of-function mutants show a severe defect in stem elongation, and SPMS [6].

Biological context of ACL5


  1. The dwarf phenotype of the Arabidopsis acl5 mutant is suppressed by a mutation in an upstream ORF of a bHLH gene. Imai, A., Hanzawa, Y., Komura, M., Yamamoto, K.T., Komeda, Y., Takahashi, T. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. ACAULIS5, an Arabidopsis gene required for stem elongation, encodes a spermine synthase. Hanzawa, Y., Takahashi, T., Michael, A.J., Burtin, D., Long, D., Pineiro, M., Coupland, G., Komeda, Y. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Arabidopsis thickvein mutation affects vein thickness and organ vascularization, and resides in a provascular cell-specific spermine synthase involved in vein definition and in polar auxin transport. Clay, N.K., Nelson, T. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The polyamine spermine protects against high salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Yamaguchi, K., Takahashi, Y., Berberich, T., Imai, A., Miyazaki, A., Takahashi, T., Michael, A., Kusano, T. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Two types of spermine synthase gene: MdACL5 and MdSPMS are differentially involved in apple fruit development and cell growth. Kitashiba, H., Hao, Y.J., Honda, C., Moriguchi, T. Gene (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Spermine is not essential for survival of Arabidopsis. Imai, A., Akiyama, T., Kato, T., Sato, S., Tabata, S., Yamamoto, K.T., Takahashi, T. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of the spermidine synthase-related gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Hanzawa, Y., Imai, A., Michael, A.J., Komeda, Y., Takahashi, T. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
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