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Gene Review

ARE1  -  Are1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: SAT2, Sterol O-acyltransferase 1, Sterol-ester synthase 1, YCR048W, YCR48W
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Disease relevance of ARE1

  • Our results indicate that transcriptional regulation of ARE genes by heme and specific substrate preferences of Are1p and Are2p may be involved in the adaptation of yeast sterol metabolism to hypoxia [1].

High impact information on ARE1

  • Deletion of ARE2 reduced sterol ester levels to approximately 25 percent of normal levels, whereas disruption of ARE1 did not affect sterol ester biosynthesis [2].
  • Measurements of [14C]acetate incorporation into saponified lipids indicated down-regulation of sterol biosynthesis in the are1 are2 mutant cells [2].

Biological context of ARE1

  • Observed changes in sterol esterification could be explained by a different effect of heme on the transcription of both genes: while the ARE1 transcript level was elevated in heme-deficient and anaerobic cells, the ARE2 gene transcript was more abundant in aerobic cells competent for heme synthesis [1].
  • So far no Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAGAT gene has been published; however, two ACAT-like genes, ARE1 and ARE2, are present in the yeast genome [3].

Anatomical context of ARE1


Associations of ARE1 with chemical compounds

  • Steryl esters are formed by the two steryl ester synthases Are1p and Are2p, two enzymes with overlapping function which also catalyze triacylglycerol formation, although to a minor extent [5].

Other interactions of ARE1

  • In a growth competition experiment are1are2 cells grow more slowly than wild-type after several rounds of cultivation, suggesting that Are1p and Are2p or steryl esters, the product formed by these two enzymes, are more important in the natural environment than under laboratory conditions [6].


  1. Heme-regulated expression of two yeast acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferases is involved in the specific response of sterol esterification to anaerobiosis. Valachovic, M., Klobucníková, V., Griac, P., Hapala, I. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Sterol esterification in yeast: a two-gene process. Yang, H., Bard, M., Bruner, D.A., Gleeson, A., Deckelbaum, R.J., Aljinovic, G., Pohl, T.M., Rothstein, R., Sturley, S.L. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. An acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)-related gene is involved in the accumulation of triacylglycerols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sandager, L., Dahlqvist, A., Banaś, A., Ståhl, U., Lenman, M., Gustavsson, M., Stymne, S. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. A yeast strain lacking lipid particles bears a defect in ergosterol formation. Sorger, D., Athenstaedt, K., Hrastnik, C., Daum, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Dynamics of neutral lipid storage in yeast. Müllner, H., Daum, G. Acta Biochim. Pol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Contribution of Are1p and Are2p to steryl ester synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Zweytick, D., Leitner, E., Kohlwein, S.D., Yu, C., Rothblatt, J., Daum, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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