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Gene Review

TRL1  -  tRNA ligase

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: J0927, LIG1, RLG1, YJL087C
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Disease relevance of TRL1


High impact information on TRL1

  • The addition of purified tRNA ligase completes splicing; we therefore have reconstituted HAC1 mRNA splicing in vitro from purified components [3].
  • In particular, Ire1p endonucleolytic cleavage leaves 2', 3'-cyclic phosphates, the excised exons remain associated by base pairing, and exon ligation by tRNA ligase follows the same chemical steps as for pre-tRNA splicing [4].
  • We demonstrate in this study the existence of a yeast tRNA ligase-like activity in HeLa cells [5].
  • These results suggest that GTP is the physiological substrate and that the Trl1 kinase has a single NTP binding site of which the P-loop is a component [6].
  • Walter and co-workers (Sidrauski, C., Cox, J. S., and Walter, P. (1996) Cell, 87, 405-413) further showed that the splicing requires tRNA ligase but not spliceosome [7].

Biological context of TRL1


Anatomical context of TRL1


Associations of TRL1 with chemical compounds

  • Binding interactions between yeast tRNA ligase and a precursor transfer ribonucleic acid containing two photoreactive uridine analogues [11].
  • To understand the structural requirements for the kinase-CPD domain, we performed an alanine scan of 30 amino acids that are conserved in Trl1 homologs from other fungi [12].

Enzymatic interactions of TRL1

  • Trl1 also catalyzes splicing of HAC1 mRNA during the unfolded protein response [13].

Other interactions of TRL1

  • Activation of Ire1p kinase induces its endoribonuclease activity to cleave unspliced HAC1 mRNA and generate exon fragments that are subsequently ligated by tRNA ligase (RLG1) [14].


  1. Domain structure in yeast tRNA ligase. Xu, Q., Teplow, D., Lee, T.D., Abelson, J. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Bacteriophage T4 RNA ligase 2 (gp24.1) exemplifies a family of RNA ligases found in all phylogenetic domains. Ho, C.K., Shuman, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The transmembrane kinase Ire1p is a site-specific endonuclease that initiates mRNA splicing in the unfolded protein response. Sidrauski, C., Walter, P. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Mechanism of non-spliceosomal mRNA splicing in the unfolded protein response pathway. Gonzalez, T.N., Sidrauski, C., Dörfler, S., Walter, P. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Conserved mechanism of tRNA splicing in eukaryotes. Zillmann, M., Gorovsky, M.A., Phizicky, E.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic and biochemical analysis of the functional domains of yeast tRNA ligase. Sawaya, R., Schwer, B., Shuman, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Unconventional splicing of HAC1/ERN4 mRNA required for the unfolded protein response. Sequence-specific and non-sequential cleavage of the splice sites. Kawahara, T., Yanagi, H., Yura, T., Mori, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Structure and function of the yeast tRNA ligase gene. Westaway, S.K., Phizicky, E.M., Abelson, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Nucleotide sequence of ORF2: an open reading frame upstream of the tRNA ligase gene. Komatsoulis, G.A., Westaway, S.K., Abelson, J.N. Nucleic Acids Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Related domains in yeast tRNA ligase, bacteriophage T4 polynucleotide kinase and RNA ligase, and mammalian myelin 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase revealed by amino acid sequence comparison. Koonin, E.V., Gorbalenya, A.E. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Binding interactions between yeast tRNA ligase and a precursor transfer ribonucleic acid containing two photoreactive uridine analogues. Tanner, N.K., Hanna, M.M., Abelson, J. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Structure-function analysis of the kinase-CPD domain of yeast tRNA ligase (Trl1) and requirements for complementation of tRNA splicing by a plant Trl1 homolog. Wang, L.K., Schwer, B., Englert, M., Beier, H., Shuman, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Portability and fidelity of RNA-repair systems. Schwer, B., Sawaya, R., Ho, C.K., Shuman, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The transcriptional co-activator ADA5 is required for HAC1 mRNA processing in vivo. Welihinda, A.A., Tirasophon, W., Kaufman, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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