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Gene Review

galR  -  galactose-inducible d-galactose regulon...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK2835, JW2805
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Disease relevance of galR


High impact information on galR

  • To analyze the structure of the repressosome, we have screened and isolated galR mutants in which single amino acid substitutions in GalR lead to defects in loop formation while the protein's operator-binding activity is retained [2].
  • The galR gene, which encodes the Gal repressor protein in Escherichia coli, has been fused to the strong pL promoter of bacteriophage lambda in plasmid pKC31 [3].
  • The amino-terminal amino acid sequence determined by automated Edman degradation is: N-Ala-Thr-Ile-Lys-Asp-Val-Ala-Arg-Leu-Ala-Gly-Val-Ser-Val-Ala-Thr-Val-. Comparison of this sequence with that deduced from the DNA sequence of the galR gene showed that the formyl methionine residue preceding alanine at position 1 is cleaved off [3].
  • The ascFB genes are paralogous to the cryptic bglFB genes, and ascG is paralogous to galR [4].
  • Transcription from different promoters of the gal regulon, galP1, galP2 and mglP, was examined by primer extension and reverse transcription of mRNA isolated from strains containing mutations in galR and/or galS [5].

Biological context of galR

  • At the 3' end of the lysA gene an open reading frame was revealed in the opposite direction and was identified as the galR coding region [6].
  • Expression of a similar gene fusion of the galR promoter to lacZ was unregulated [7].
  • In strains completely deleted for galR, the gene which encodes the Gal repressor, the operon is derepressed by only 10-fold without an inducer [8].
  • The transcription start sites for galR and galS, the genes for the repressor and isorepressor, were determined by primer extension of in vivo transcripts [7].
  • Study of the promoter-lacZ gene fusions introduced into the chromosome indicated that galS expression was elevated in cells in which the normal galS gene was interrupted, but not in cells in which the galR gene was deleted [7].


  1. Sequence of galR gene indicates a common evolutionary origin of lac and gal repressor in Escherichia coli. von Wilcken-Bergmann, B., Müller-Hill, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. GalR mutants defective in repressosome formation. Geanacopoulos, M., Vasmatzis, G., Lewis, D.E., Roy, S., Lee, B., Adhya, S. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Purification and properties of Gal repressor:pL-galR fusion in pKC31 plasmid vector. Majumdar, A., Rudikoff, S., Adhya, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Nucleotide sequence, function, activation, and evolution of the cryptic asc operon of Escherichia coli K12. Hall, B.G., Xu, L. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Isorepressor of the gal regulon in Escherichia coli. Weickert, M.J., Adhya, S. J. Mol. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of diaminopimelate decarboxylase synthesis in Escherichia coli. II. Nucleotide sequence of the lysA gene and its regulatory region. Stragier, P., Danos, O., Patte, J.C. J. Mol. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Control of transcription of gal repressor and isorepressor genes in Escherichia coli. Weickert, M.J., Adhya, S. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Further inducibility of a constitutive system: ultrainduction of the gal operon. Tokeson, J.P., Garges, S., Adhya, S. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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