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High impact information on Xenodiagnosis

  • In this study, the reservoir role of Apodemus mice for B. garinii OspA serotype 4 was demonstrated by xenodiagnosis [1].
  • Positive xenodiagnosis was associated with lower lymphoblastogenic responses to T. cruzi in group 1 patients, suggesting the presence of a regulatory or modulatory mechanism which is lost in patients with chagasic cardiomyopathy [2].
  • The presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic chagasic patients with negative xenodiagnosis (XD) after 6 years following completion of therapy with either itraconazole or allopurinol was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization assays [3].
  • Parasitologic (xenodiagnosis, hemoculture, or both), histopathologic (hematoxylin and eosin, and peroxidase-anti-peroxidase staining), and molecular (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] followed by slot-blot hybridization) tests were used in the analysis [4].
  • The highest percentage of lytic sera was observed when MF or V115 strains were used as target cells (90% and 71%, respectively) in the chronic chagasic group with negative xenodiagnosis results [5].

Associations of Xenodiagnosis with chemical compounds

  • The latex Chagas test shows a mean coincidence of 90% with xenodiagnosis, 88% with CF, 75% with IFT, and 83% with IHA [6].

Gene context of Xenodiagnosis

  • As TUE with negative PPFP presented negative xenodiagnosis and positive or oscillating CSA, they were classified as dissociated according to the criteria of Krettli and Brener (J. Immunol. 128:2009-2012, 1982) and could indeed be considered cured after chemotherapy [7].


  1. Apodemus species mice are reservoir hosts of Borrelia garinii OspA serotype 4 in Switzerland. Huegli, D., Hu, C.M., Humair, P.F., Wilske, B., Gern, L. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Longitudinal study of immune response in human Chagas' disease. Mosca, W., Plaja, J., Hubsch, R., Cedillos, R. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization assays to detect Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic chagasic patients treated with itraconazole or allopurinol. Zulantay, I., Honores, P., Solari, A., Apt, W., Ortiz, S., Osuna, A., Rojas, A., López, B., Sánchez, G. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Relationship between Trypanosoma cruzi and human chagasic megaesophagus: blood and tissue parasitism. Lages-Silva, E., Crema, E., Ramirez, L.E., Macedo, A.M., Pena, S.D., Chiari, E. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Lytic antibodies in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected persons with low parasitemia. Zulantay, I., Venegas, J., Apt, W., Solari, A., Sanchez, G. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Survey on experiences with latex-Chagas-test in various countries. Enders, B., Hungerer, K.D., Zwisler, O. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Double-blind study to evaluate flow cytometry analysis of anti-live trypomastigote antibodies for monitoring treatment efficacy in cases of human Chagas' disease. Martins-Filho, O.A., Eloi-Santos, S.M., Teixeira Carvalho, A., Oliveira, R.C., Rassi, A., Luquetti, A.O., Rassi, G.G., Brener, Z. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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