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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mycoplasmal lipopeptide MALP-2 induces the chemoattractant proteins macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and MIP-2 and promotes leukocyte infiltration in mice.

Natural as well as experimental infections with pathogenic mycoplasmas lead to cellular responses characterized by early polymorphonuclear leukocyte influx, which in turn is followed by infiltration of macrophages. Since some of the most potent leukocyte chemoattractants are macrophage products, we investigated whether the 2-kDa macrophage-activating lipopeptide (MALP-2) from Mycoplasma fermentans was capable of inducing chemoattractant chemokines and initiating an in vivo inflammatory effect. MALP-2 was a potent in vitro inducer of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and MIP-2, yielding a maximal response at 0.1 ng/ml (5 x 10(-11) M). Leukocyte infiltration was determined after intraperitoneal injection of MALP-2, liposome-encapsulated MALP-2, and heat-killed mycoplasmas. There was a steady increase in the number of peritoneal cells over 72 h in response to these agents. Polymorph counts were maximal by 24 to 48 h, decreasing thereafter. Monocytes/macrophages had significantly increased after 3 days. MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, and MIP-2 levels in serum or peritoneal lavage fluid were determined. MIP-1alpha and MCP-1 levels were elevated by 2 to 6 h after injection and were still above control values after 24 h. In contrast, MIP-2 levels reached their maximum at 2 h, dropping to control values after 24 h. We conclude that macrophage-stimulating mycoplasmal lipoproteins, exemplified by MALP-2, play an important role in the late phase of phagocyte recruitment at sites of infection and that this is affected by leukoattractive chemokines.[1]


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