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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effect of cigarette smoke on the mutagenic activation of environmental carcinogens by rodent liver.

In order to assess the effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on metabolic enzymes, male hamsters and rats were exposed for two weeks to smoke produced in a Hamburg type II smoking machine. The livers were then used for Ames liquid incubation and western immunoblot assays. Mutagenic activities of seven heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the presence of rat or hamster liver S9 were elevated up to 3.7 times above controls (including sham smoke control). Enhancement of mutagenic activities of PhIP and aflatoxin B(1) was observed only in CS-exposed hamster, whereas no significant alteration of mutagenicity was observed with 2-aminofluorene, benzo[a]pyrene, and 3'-hydroxymethyl-N, N-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene in strain TA98 or with six N-nitrosodialkylamines in strain TA100. 7,8-Benzoflavone and/or furafylline considerably inhibited the mutagenic activation of IQ and Trp-P-1 in the presence of liver S9 from untreated hamsters and sham smoke- or CS-exposed hamsters and rats, indicating the predominant involvement of hamster cytochrome P450 ( CYP) 1A enzymes in the metabolic activation of HCAs. In addition, the data suggest that CS-exposure may selectively induce hepatic CYP1A1/1A2 isoforms. Western immunoblot analyses of liver microsomes using anti-rat CYP antibodies revealed that CS-exposure increased the levels of hamster CYP1A2 (3.9-fold) and rat CYP1A2 (3.0-fold) and CYP1A1, without significant change in the levels of CYP2E1 and CYP2B and 3A isoforms in each species. The presently observed selective induction of HCA activation and CYP isozymes due to CS supports the idea that CS may contribute to enhancing effects on initiation by carcinogens which are metabolically activated by hepatic CYP1A1/1A2. In conjunction with results observed for smokers, the present findings indicate that the hamster is a good animal for studies with CS, and that cigarette smoking in combination with intake of heating protein-rich foods as a life style may markedly contribute to the human carcinogenesis by HCAs.[1]


  1. Effect of cigarette smoke on the mutagenic activation of environmental carcinogens by rodent liver. Koide, A., Fuwa, K., Furukawa, F., Hirose, M., Nishikawa, A., Mori, Y. Mutat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
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