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MeSH Review

Life Style

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Disease relevance of Life Style


Psychiatry related information on Life Style

  • Analysis of interaction between the environmental, life-style factors and genotype in men for the traits of HDLC and apoAI showed statistically significant interaction of the genotype only with alcohol consumption [6].
  • The Stockholm Cancer Prevention Program (SCPP) is a community-based program aimed at reducing cancer incidence and mortality by reducing risk factors related to life-style: dietary habits, tobacco use, and sunbathing [7].
  • The National Heart Foundation 1989 Risk Factor Prevalence Survey data were analysed to examine the associations between leisure-time physical activity and other life-style health behaviours in a national representative sample with adjustment for potential confounders [8].
  • METHODS: The following questionnaires were administered to 423 female high-school students: The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ), and Life Style Index (LSI) (both tapping defense mechanisms), and a structured questionnaire assessing eating-related issues [9].
  • Vitiligo can and should be treated, especially in those individuals whose life-style, self-esteem, and productivity have been dramatically altered by this disease [10].

High impact information on Life Style

  • Insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response, and glucose effectiveness in a population-based sample of 380 young healthy Caucasians. Analysis of the impact of gender, body fat, physical fitness, and life-style factors [11].
  • A large segment of the population is modifying its dietary cholesterol intake to achieve a healthier life-style [12].
  • It also is hypothesized that this thrifty genotype in these Indians may contribute to NIDDM when a sedentary life-style is adopted and food sources are constant [13].
  • Globins are proteins commonly associated with oxygen transport in vertebrate blood, but the invertebrate phyla display a wide variety of globin types that reflect their disparate life styles and evolutionary history [14].
  • Most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease can be managed by reassurance and simple life-style adjustments alone [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Life Style

  • SigmaIRI was lower in 42 subjects following life-style intervention, associated with significant (P < 0.005) reductions in sigmaglucose, and fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, RLP-cholesterol, and RLP-triglyceride concentrations [16].
  • Thus, among these chemicals of obvious significance to human life-style, caffeine enhanced the development of pancreatic tumors when administered during the post-initiation phase in this hamster model [17].
  • Aromatic DNA adducts in foundry workers in relation to exposure, life style and CYP1A1 and glutathione transferase M1 genotype [18].
  • Metabolic changes such as the lack of complete metabolic pathways for the synthesis of numerous compounds (e.g., glycogen, biotin, NAD, and choline) are consistent with adaptation of brucellae to an intracellular life-style [19].
  • CONCLUSION: The very high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der p 1) found in Wellington are likely to be due to a variety of life-style and climatic factors [20].

Biological context of Life Style


Anatomical context of Life Style


Gene context of Life Style

  • Examination included physique measurement (BMI and waist girth), blood analysis (lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, and PAI-1), and life-style assessment by self-administered questionnaires [29].
  • The relative importance of body mass index (BMI), demographic, and life-style factors in predicting androgen and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations of young healthy men has not been clearly established [30].
  • However, there is little information about the relationship between OPLL and life styles in the prime of life (between 30 and 50 years) [31].
  • METHODS: In the children of the cross-sectional Prevention of Allergy Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Life Style study, asthma and atopy were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires (n = 8263) and serum IgE measurements (n = 2086) [32].
  • If confirmed, the expression of an ATF in eukaryotes suggests that the genes coding for ATFs were transferred during evolution from anaerobic Prokarya to pathogenic protists, to increase their fitness for the microaerobic, parasitic life style [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Life Style

  • Sufficient data suggest that life-style modification or pharmacotherapy directed at improving insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance may reduce progression to diabetes [34].
  • The children were enrolled in a prospective birth cohort study focusing on the relation of exposure to various environmental and life style factors during early childhood and development of atopy [35].
  • The incidence of MS had been stable despite Westernization of life-style in Japan. The prevalence ratio of MG and PM had increased moderately, possibly due to prolongation of life with recent progress in therapy [36].
  • In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 female "hard-core" heroin addicts on a methadone maintenance treatment program 1 year or longer to learn what the rehabilitation process is like for women and how their life-styles had changed since being in treatment [37].
  • Home parenteral nutrition allows patients with gut failure to maintain a near-normal life-style [38].


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  2. Dietary fat and gestational hyperglycaemia. Bo, S., Menato, G., Lezo, A., Signorile, A., Bardelli, C., De Michieli, F., Massobrio, M., Pagano, G. Diabetologia (2001) [Pubmed]
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  6. Interaction of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein I405V polymorphism with alcohol consumption in smoking and non-smoking healthy men, and the effect on plasma HDL cholesterol and apoAI concentration. Gudnason, V., Thormar, K., Humphries, S.E. Clin. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Promoting dietary change in the Stockholm Cancer Prevention Program. Kanström, L., Holm, L.E. Cancer Detect. Prev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Leisure-time physical activity and other health behaviours: are they related? Johnson, N.A., Boyle, C.A., Heller, R.F. Australian journal of public health. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Defense mechanisms in a community-based sample of female adolescents with partial eating disorders. Stein, D., Bronstein, Y., Weizman, A. International journal of psychiatry in medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Should vitiligo be treated? Grimes, P.E., Kenney, J.A. Cutis; cutaneous medicine for the practitioner. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response, and glucose effectiveness in a population-based sample of 380 young healthy Caucasians. Analysis of the impact of gender, body fat, physical fitness, and life-style factors. Clausen, J.O., Borch-Johnsen, K., Ibsen, H., Bergman, R.N., Hougaard, P., Winther, K., Pedersen, O. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of apolipoprotein E and B gene variation in determining response of lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein levels to increased dietary cholesterol. Boerwinkle, E., Brown, S.A., Rohrbach, K., Gotto, A.M., Patsch, W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Archaeology of NIDDM. Excavation of the "thrifty" genotype. Wendorf, M., Goldfine, I.D. Diabetes (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Nemoglobins: divergent nematode globins. Blaxter, M.L. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Rationale and efficacy of conservative therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Kitchin, L.I., Castell, D.O. Arch. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Relationship between hyperinsulinemia and remnant lipoprotein concentrations in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Ai, M., Tanaka, A., Ogita, K., Sekine, M., Numano, F., Numano, F., Reaven, G.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and sodium selenite on pancreatic carcinogenesis in hamsters after initiation with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine. Nishikawa, A., Furukawa, F., Imazawa, T., Yoshimura, H., Mitsumori, K., Takahashi, M. Carcinogenesis (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Aromatic DNA adducts in foundry workers in relation to exposure, life style and CYP1A1 and glutathione transferase M1 genotype. Hemminki, K., Dickey, C., Karlsson, S., Bell, D., Hsu, Y., Tsai, W.Y., Mooney, L.A., Savela, K., Perera, F.P. Carcinogenesis (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Whole-genome analyses of speciation events in pathogenic Brucellae. Chain, P.S., Comerci, D.J., Tolmasky, M.E., Larimer, F.W., Malfatti, S.A., Vergez, L.M., Aguero, F., Land, M.L., Ugalde, R.A., Garcia, E. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Determinants of house dust mite allergen in homes in Wellington, New Zealand. Wickens, K., Siebers, R., Ellis, I., Lewis, S., Sawyer, G., Tohill, S., Stone, L., Kent, R., Kennedy, J., Slater, T., Crothall, A., Trethowen, H., Pearce, N., Fitzharris, P., Crane, J. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Exercise induced bronchospasm in Ghana: differences in prevalence between urban and rural schoolchildren. Addo Yobo, E.O., Custovic, A., Taggart, S.C., Asafo-Agyei, A.P., Woodcock, A. Thorax (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. The influence of rapid food intake on postprandial reflux: studies in healthy volunteers. Wildi, S.M., Tutuian, R., Castell, D.O. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Serum insulin-like growth factor I in a random population sample of men and women: relation to age, sex, smoking habits, coffee consumption and physical activity, blood pressure and concentrations of plasma lipids, fibrinogen, parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin. Landin-Wilhelmsen, K., Wilhelmsen, L., Lappas, G., Rosén, T., Lindstedt, G., Lundberg, P.A., Bengtsson, B.A. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance: thrifty genes struggling with over-feeding and sedentary life style? Holte, J. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Bone mineral density in relation to anthropometric properties, physical activity and smoking in 75-year-old men and women. Cheng, S., Suominen, H., Heikkinen, E. Aging (Milan, Italy) (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Lactose-over-glucose preference in Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705: glcP, encoding a glucose transporter, is subject to lactose repression. Parche, S., Beleut, M., Rezzonico, E., Jacobs, D., Arigoni, F., Titgemeyer, F., Jankovic, I. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Relationship between plasma concentrations of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol and life-style factors and levels of DNA adducts in lymphocytes. Wang, Y., Ichiba, M., Oishi, H., Iyadomi, M., Shono, N., Tomokuni, K. Nutrition and cancer. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Life style and cardiovascular risk factors in the Japanese population--from an epidemiological survey on serum lipid levels in Japan 1990 part 1: influence of life style and excess body weight on HDL-cholesterol and other lipid parameters in men. Yamamoto, A., Temba, H., Horibe, H., Mabuchi, H., Saito, Y., Matsuzawa, Y., Kita, T., Nakamura, H. J. Atheroscler. Thromb. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. The determinants of plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels differ for American and Japanese men aged 40-49. Takamiya, T., Kadowaki, T., Zaky, W.R., Ueshima, H., Evans, R.W., Okamura, T., Kashiwagi, A., Nakamura, Y., Kita, Y., Tracy, R.P., Kuller, L.H., Sekikawa, A. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Body mass and physical activity are important predictors of serum androgen concentrations in young healthy men. Mantzoros, C.S., Georgiadis, E.I. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Sleeping habit and other life styles in the prime of life and risk for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL): a case-control study in Japan. Washio, M., Kobashi, G., Okamoto, K., Sasaki, S., Yokoyama, T., Miyake, Y., Sakamoto, N., Ohta, K., Inaba, Y., Tanaka, H. Journal of epidemiology / Japan Epidemiological Association. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Prenatal farm exposure is related to the expression of receptors of the innate immunity and to atopic sensitization in school-age children. Ege, M.J., Bieli, C., Frei, R., van Strien, R.T., Riedler, J., Ublagger, E., Schram-Bijkerk, D., Brunekreef, B., van Hage, M., Scheynius, A., Pershagen, G., Benz, M.R., Lauener, R., von Mutius, E., Braun-Fahrländer, C., The Parsifal Study Team, n.u.l.l. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Trichomonas vaginalis degrades nitric oxide and expresses a flavorubredoxin-like protein: a new pathogenic mechanism? Sarti, P., Fiori, P.L., Forte, E., Rappelli, P., Teixeira, M., Mastronicola, D., Sanciu, G., Giuffré, A., Brunori, M. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Prevention of type 2 diabetes. Goldberg, R.B. Med. Clin. North Am. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Epstein-Barr virus infection is not associated with development of allergy in children. Sidorchuk, A., Lagarde, F., Pershagen, G., Wickman, M., Linde, A. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Prevalence studies of multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and myopathies in Kumamoto district, Japan. Araki, S., Uchino, M., Kumamoto, T. Neuroepidemiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  37. Rehabilitation experiences of women ex-addicts in methadone treatment. Bahna, G., Gordon, N.B. The International journal of the addictions. (1978) [Pubmed]
  38. Home parenteral nutrition. Components, application, and complications. Steiger, E. Postgraduate medicine. (1984) [Pubmed]
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