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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differential regulation of the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in budding yeast by the protein tyrosine phosphatases Ptp2 and Ptp3.

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are inactivated by dual-specificity and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in yeasts. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two PTPs, Ptp2 and Ptp3, inactivate the MAPKs, Hog1 and Fus3, with different specificities. To further examine the functions and substrate specificities of Ptp2 and Ptp3, we tested whether they could inactivate a third MAPK, Mpk1, in the cell wall integrity pathway. In vivo and in vitro evidence indicates that both PTPs inactivate Mpk1, but Ptp2 is the more effective negative regulator. Multicopy expression of PTP2, but not PTP3, suppressed growth defects due to the MEK kinase mutation, BCK1-20, and the MEK mutation, MKK1-386, that hyperactivate this pathway. In addition, deletion of PTP2, but not PTP3, exacerbated growth defects due to MKK1-386. Other evidence supported a role for Ptp3 in this pathway. Expression of MKK1-386 was lethal in the ptp2Delta ptp3Delta strain but not in either single PTP deletion strain. In addition, the ptp2Delta ptp3Delta strain showed higher levels of heat stress-induced Mpk1-phosphotyrosine than the wild-type strain or strains lacking either PTP. The PTPs also showed differences in vitro. Ptp2 was more efficient than Ptp3 at binding and dephosphorylating Mpk1. Another factor that may contribute to the greater effectiveness of Ptp2 is its subcellular localization. Ptp2 is predominantly nuclear whereas Ptp3 is cytoplasmic, suggesting that active Mpk1 is present in the nucleus. Last, PTP2 but not PTP3 transcript increased in response to heat shock in a Mpk1-dependent manner, suggesting that Ptp2 acts in a negative feedback loop to inactivate Mpk1.[1]


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