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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Protein-protein interaction revealed by NMR T(2) relaxation experiments: the lipoyl domain and E1 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus.

T(2) relaxation experiments in combination with chemical shift and site-directed mutagenesis data were used to identify sites involved in weak but specific protein-protein interactions in the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus. The pyruvate decarboxylase component, a heterotetramer E1(alpha(2)beta(2)), is responsible for the first committed and irreversible catalytic step. The accompanying reductive acetylation of the lipoyl group attached to the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase ( E2) component involves weak, transient but specific interactions between E1 and the lipoyl domain of the E2 polypeptide chain. The interactions between the free lipoyl domain (9 kDa) and free E1alpha (41 kDa), E1beta (35 kDa) and intact E1alpha(2)beta(2) (152 kDa) components, all the products of genes or sub-genes over-expressed in Escherichia coli, were investigated using heteronuclear 2D NMR spectroscopy. The experiments were conducted with uniformly (15)N-labeled lipoyl domain and unlabeled E1 components. Major contact points on the lipoyl domain were identified from changes in the backbone (15)N spin-spin relaxation time in the presence and absence of E1(alpha(2)beta(2)) or its individual E1alpha or E1beta components. Although the E1alpha subunit houses the sequence motif associated with the essential cofactor, thiamin diphosphate, recognition of the lipoyl domain was distributed over sites in both E1alpha and E1beta. A single point mutation (N40A) on the lipoyl domain significantly reduces its ability to be reductively acetylated by the cognate E1. None the less, the N40A mutant domain appears to interact with E1 similarly to the wild-type domain. This suggests that the lipoyl group of the N40A lipoyl domain is not being presented to E1 in the correct orientation, owing perhaps to slight perturbations in the lipoyl domain structure, especially in the lipoyl-lysine beta-turn region, as indicated by chemical shift data. Interaction with E1 and subsequent reductive acetylation are not necessarily coupled.[1]


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