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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Disturbed enamel formation in wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) from fluoride polluted areas in Central Europe.

The pathological alterations of enamel structure in the teeth of wild boars from fluoride polluted areas in N-Bohemia (Czech Republic) and S-Saxony (Germany) were studied on a macroscopic and a microscopic level. Mandibular bone fluoride concentration (mg F(-)/kg, dry wt; mean +/-SD, individuals <24 months of age) in the specimens from N-Bohemia (754.3+/-149.6) and S-Saxony (490.8+/-135.1) was significantly higher than that of controls (free of dental fluorosis), originating from the western part of Germany (304.7+/-91.0). Fluoride content in bulk enamel (mg F(-)/kg, ash wt) of fluorotic permanent teeth from N-Bohemia (382.1+/-165.2) and S-Saxony (125.0+/-38.3) was likewise significantly increased over that of non-fluorotic control teeth from W-Germany (33.6+/-26.7). Macroscopically, fluorosed wild boar enamel exhibited opacity and discoloration of varying extent, accentuated perikymata as well as hypoplastic and posteruptive surface defects. Microradiographic and scanning electron microscopic analyses revealed enamel subsurface hypomineralization, accentuated Retzius lines and occurrence of broad, hypomineralized incremental bands of abnormal structure underlying hypoplastic enamel surface defects. The presence of zones of aprismatic enamel was associated with these bands. Incremental bands with altered enamel structure and enamel surface hypoplasias, both denoting a severe disturbance during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, have previously been observed in rodents following acute parenteral fluoride dosing. It is concluded that in the chronically fluoride exposed wild boars periods of especially elevated plasma fluoride levels exerted an acute toxic effect on the secretory ameloblasts. A feature not previously reported from fluorosed enamel was the occurrence of canal-like structures that originated at the broad incremental bands and extended into the external enamel. The presence of these canals presumably results from a delay in the resumption of secretory activity by groups of ameloblasts following a fluoride insult. Based on experimental evidence in domestic pigs and in sheep, the overall subsurface hypomineralization of fluorosed wild boar enamel is attributed to a disturbance of enamel maturation. The distribution of fluorotic enamel changes within the dentition of the wild boars could be related to the developmental sequence of tooth formation in the species. Teeth whose crown formation took place prenatally (deciduous teeth) or largely pre-weaning (permanent first molars) exhibited no or only moderate fluorotic enamel alterations. Based on the extension of enamel surface hypoplasias along the coronoapical axes of the tooth crowns, the timing of excess fluoride exposure that caused a marked disruption of enamel matrix secretion was estimated in specimens with a known date of death. The results indicate that the wild boars had been exposed to a particularly severe fluoride impact during autumn and winter of their first year of life.[1]


  1. Disturbed enamel formation in wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) from fluoride polluted areas in Central Europe. Kierdorf, H., Kierdorf, U., Richards, A., Sedlacek, F. Anat. Rec. (2000) [Pubmed]
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