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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Molar

  • The inactivated hemagglutinating-virus of Japan (HVJ) envelope vector containing the mouse RANKL expression plasmid was injected periodically into the palatal periodontal tissue of the upper first molars during TM [1].
  • Periodontal disease was produced in rats by tying silk ligatures around the two maxillary first molars and placing the animals on a high sucrose diet for 14 weeks [2].
  • Dental plaque and caries on occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars in relation to stage of eruption [3].
  • The occlusal surfaces of partly and fully erupted first right permanent molars were examined with respect to the occurrence and distribution of plaque and dental caries in a group of 57 six- to eight-year-old children [3].
  • PGG glucan-treated animals had significantly less infection-stimulated periapical bone resorption than control animals, as determined radiographically (-48.0%; p < 0.001) and by histomorphometry (-40.8% and -42.4% for first and second molars, respectively; p < 0.001) [4].

High impact information on Molar

  • In organs and structures strongly hybridizing to c-myc probes, for example the fetal part of the placenta, gut, liver, kidney, pancreas, submandibular glands, enamel organs of the molars, and skeletal cartilage, the level of expression depended on the stage of development [5].
  • Normal development of maxillary molars in the absence of activin shows a position specific role for this pathway in development of dentition [6].
  • Patient 2 was given Factor VIIa concurrent with tranexamic acid in association with the extraction of two primary molars [7].
  • The missing molars are arrested at different developmental stages and posterior molars are consistently arrested at an earlier stage, suggesting that a reduction of Pax9 gene dosage affects the dental field as a whole [8].
  • Heterozygous animals appear normal, whereas Nfic(-/-) mice have unique tooth pathologies: molars lacking roots, thin and brittle mandibular incisors, and weakened abnormal maxillary incisors [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Molar


Biological context of Molar


Anatomical context of Molar


Associations of Molar with chemical compounds

  • The associations of estrogen use and tooth retention are evident for all but the molars [25].
  • The maxillary molars of rats were inoculated with P. gingivalis and exposed to up to 48 J of 630-nm laser light in the presence of toluidine blue [26].
  • Occlusal wear of the molars in long-term diabetic rats was significantly increased as compared with that in the controls [27].
  • Effect of inhibition of net calcium uptake on net fluoride uptake in developing rat molars [28].
  • Coronal pulps were removed from 120 primary and permanent molars with a known pain history [29].

Gene context of Molar

  • By contrast, rodent incisors and vole molars demonstrate continuous growth, owing to the formation and maintenance of a stem cell compartment by the constant expression of Fgf10 [30].
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on embryonic day 13 to 1-day-old first molars using Dmp1- and DSPP-specific primer sets [31].
  • Shh expression was absent from the epithelial enamel knot in lower molars of Runx2 mutant and reduced in upper molars [32].
  • Furthermore, mice lacking both Dlx-1 and -2 have unique abnormalities, including the absence of maxillary molars [33].
  • These differences between mutant upper and lower molars may be explained by the substitution of Runx2 function by Runx3, another member of the runt gene family that was upregulated in upper but not lower molars of Runx2 mutants [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Molar

  • Coronal surfaces of extracted human molars from experimental and control groups were pumiced, sterilized, and incubated for two hours at 37 C in parotid saliva and distilled water, respectively [34].
  • At day 8, the gingivomucosal tissue encircling the mandibular 1st molars was removed on both sides from ligated and sham operated animals for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity assay and for immunocytochemistry with anti-iNOS serum [35].
  • Second, we used combined retrograde transport of DiI from the molar pulp and GFAP immunofluorescence to show direct correspondence between neurons that innervate the molars and neurons that are encircled by GFAP-IR satellite cells [36].
  • In Part II, the baseline sample size included posterior composite restorations placed in 92 primary and 95 permanent molars in all children (ages 7-10) [37].
  • The present study investigated, by immunoelectron microscopy, the localization of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in periodontal Ruffini endings in rat molars during experimental tooth movement [38].


  1. Local RANKL gene transfer to the periodontal tissue accelerates orthodontic tooth movement. Kanzaki, H., Chiba, M., Arai, K., Takahashi, I., Haruyama, N., Nishimura, M., Mitani, H. Gene Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Experimental bacterial endocarditis after dental extractions in rats with periodontitis. Overholser, C.D., Moreillon, P., Glauser, M.P. J. Infect. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Dental plaque and caries on occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars in relation to stage of eruption. Carvalho, J.C., Ekstrand, K.R., Thylstrup, A. J. Dent. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Reduction of infection-stimulated periapical bone resorption by the biological response modifier PGG glucan. Stashenko, P., Wang, C.Y., Riley, E., Wu, Y., Ostroff, G., Niederman, R. J. Dent. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Dynamic expression pattern of the myc protooncogene in midgestation mouse embryos. Schmid, P., Schulz, W.A., Hameister, H. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Activin is an essential early mesenchymal signal in tooth development that is required for patterning of the murine dentition. Ferguson, C.A., Tucker, A.S., Christensen, L., Lau, A.L., Matzuk, M.M., Sharpe, P.T. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Use of human factor VIIa in the treatment of two hemophilia A patients with high-titer inhibitors. Hedner, U., Kisiel, W. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Reduction of Pax9 gene dosage in an allelic series of mouse mutants causes hypodontia and oligodontia. Kist, R., Watson, M., Wang, X., Cairns, P., Miles, C., Reid, D.J., Peters, H. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Essential role for NFI-C/CTF transcription-replication factor in tooth root development. Steele-Perkins, G., Butz, K.G., Lyons, G.E., Zeichner-David, M., Kim, H.J., Cho, M.I., Gronostajski, R.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Exposure to low levels of fluoride and dental caries in deciduous molars of Tanzanian children. Frencken, J.E., König, K.G., Mulder, J., Truin, G.J. Caries Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Prevalence of aggressive periodontitis in school attendees in Uganda. Albandar, J.M., Muranga, M.B., Rams, T.E. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Dental caries and mutans streptococci in the proximal areas of molars affected by the habitual use of xylitol chewing gum. Isokangas, P., Tenovuo, J., Söderling, E., Männistö, H., Mäkinen, K.K. Caries Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. A 2-year follow-up of primary molars, pulpotomized with a gentle technique and capped with calcium hydroxide. Schröder, U. Scandinavian journal of dental research. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Preliminary report: laboratory-induced stain removal as assessed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Habib, C.M., Kugel, G., Marcus, A. The Journal of clinical dentistry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Hepatocyte growth factor is involved in the morphogenesis of tooth germ in murine molars. Tabata, M.J., Kim, K., Liu, J.G., Yamashita, K., Matsumura, T., Kato, J., Iwamoto, M., Wakisaka, S., Matsumoto, K., Nakamura, T., Kumegawa, M., Kurisu, K. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. The role of effectors of the activin signalling pathway, activin receptors IIA and IIB, and Smad2, in patterning of tooth development. Ferguson, C.A., Tucker, A.S., Heikinheimo, K., Nomura, M., Oh, P., Li, E., Sharpe, P.T. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Parotid gland function and dentin apposition in rat molars. Leonora, J., Tjäderhane, L., Tieche, J.M. J. Dent. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Calbindin-D28 kappa localization in rat molars during odontogenesis. Elms, T.N., Taylor, A.N. J. Dent. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. An epistatic genetic basis for fluctuating asymmetry of tooth size and shape in mice. Leamy, L.J., Workman, M.S., Routman, E.J., Cheverud, J.M. Heredity (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Ectodysplasin-A1 is sufficient to rescue both hair growth and sweat glands in Tabby mice. Srivastava, A.K., Durmowicz, M.C., Hartung, A.J., Hudson, J., Ouzts, L.V., Donovan, D.M., Cui, C.Y., Schlessinger, D. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Amelin: an enamel-related protein, transcribed in the cells of epithelial root sheath. Fong, C.D., Slaby, I., Hammarström, L. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Quantitative in vivo wear of human enamel. Lambrechts, P., Braem, M., Vuylsteke-Wauters, M., Vanherle, G. J. Dent. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. An immunocytochemical study of the human odontoblast process using antibodies against tubulin, actin, and vimentin. Sigal, M.J., Aubin, J.E., Ten Cate, A.R. J. Dent. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Calreticulin--an endoplasmic reticulum protein with calcium-binding activity is also found in the extracellular matrix. Somogyi, E., Petersson, U., Hultenby, K., Wendel, M. Matrix Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Postmenopausal estrogen replacement and tooth retention. Krall, E.A., Dawson-Hughes, B., Hannan, M.T., Wilson, P.W., Kiel, D.P. Am. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. In vivo killing of Porphyromonas gingivalis by toluidine blue-mediated photosensitization in an animal model. Kömerik, N., Nakanishi, H., MacRobert, A.J., Henderson, B., Speight, P., Wilson, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Root surface caries and periodontal disease in long-term alloxan diabetic rats. Reuterving, C.O., Hägg, E., Gustafson, G.T. J. Dent. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of inhibition of net calcium uptake on net fluoride uptake in developing rat molars. Bawden, J.W., Crenshaw, M.A. J. Dent. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Innervation of human tooth pulp in relation to caries and dentition type. Rodd, H.D., Boissonade, F.M. J. Dent. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Cessation of Fgf10 signaling, resulting in a defective dental epithelial stem cell compartment, leads to the transition from crown to root formation. Yokohama-Tamaki, T., Ohshima, H., Fujiwara, N., Takada, Y., Ichimori, Y., Wakisaka, S., Ohuchi, H., Harada, H. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Gene expression patterns of murine dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) suggest distinct developmental functions in vivo. D'Souza, R.N., Cavender, A., Sunavala, G., Alvarez, J., Ohshima, T., Kulkarni, A.B., MacDougall, M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Runx2 mediates FGF signaling from epithelium to mesenchyme during tooth morphogenesis. Aberg, T., Wang, X.P., Kim, J.H., Yamashiro, T., Bei, M., Rice, R., Ryoo, H.M., Thesleff, I. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Role of the Dlx homeobox genes in proximodistal patterning of the branchial arches: mutations of Dlx-1, Dlx-2, and Dlx-1 and -2 alter morphogenesis of proximal skeletal and soft tissue structures derived from the first and second arches. Qiu, M., Bulfone, A., Ghattas, I., Meneses, J.J., Christensen, L., Sharpe, P.T., Presley, R., Pedersen, R.A., Rubenstein, J.L. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Characteristics of an in vitro dental pellicle. Stiefel, D.J. J. Dent. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  35. Protective effects of mercaptoethylguanidine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, in ligature-induced periodontitis in the rat. Lohinai, Z., Benedek, P., Fehér, E., Györfi, A., Rosivall, L., Fazekas, A., Salzman, A.L., Szabó, C. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. GFAP immunoreactivity in trigeminal ganglion satellite cells after tooth injury in rats. Stephenson, J.L., Byers, M.R. Exp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Wear of composite resin restorations in primary versus permanent molar teeth. Wendell, J.J., Vann, W.F. J. Dent. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  38. Alterations in ultrastructural localization of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in periodontal Ruffini endings of rat molars during experimental tooth movement. Kobayashi, H., Ochi, K., Saito, I., Hanada, K., Maeda, T. J. Dent. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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