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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of the dual function tissue transglutaminase/Galpha(h) during murine neuromuscular development: gene and enzyme isoform expression.

Coagulation Factor XIII (F. VIII), a member of the transglutaminase (TGase) superfamily, is activated by thrombin, cross-links fibrin and stabilizes clots. Another member of this family, tissue TGase (tTG), having similar enzymatic activity, is implicated in neural development and synapse stabilization. Our previous studies indicated that synapse formation and maintenance at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) involved components of the coagulation cascade in development. Others then showed that either F. XIII or tTG were localized at NMJs in a developmentally-regulated fashion. In the current studies, we addressed the temporal course of skeletal muscle tTG gene expression and found maximal expression at birth and continuing into the immediate postnatal period. Subcellular fractionation revealed a relatively constant particulate isoform of TGase activity which predominated in early embryonic muscle development. In contrast, cytosolic TGase specific activity became the major isoform in the postnatal period. The timing of muscle TGase activity correlated well with expression of tTG mRNA and we now present novel data of Tgm 2 gene expression for tTG in skeletal muscle. Confirming and extending the previous studies, TGase becomes localized at NMJs in the early, further ramifying in the late, neonatal period. These data suggest that the early pulse of particulate activity could coincide with the period of myoblast cell death in embryonic muscle. On the other hand, the peak cytosolic TGase activity occurs in the neonatal period, correlating temporally with muscle prothrombin expression during activity-dependent synapse elimination and possibly the source of the enzyme localized to the NMJ extracellular matrix resulting in synaptic stabilization.[1]


  1. Regulation of the dual function tissue transglutaminase/Galpha(h) during murine neuromuscular development: gene and enzyme isoform expression. Citron, B.A., Gregory, E.J., Steigerwalt, D.S., Qin, F., Festoff, B.W. Neurochem. Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
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