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Gene Review

Tgm1  -  transglutaminase 1, K polypeptide

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2310004J08Rik, Epidermal TGase, K polypeptide, Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase K, TG K, ...
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Disease relevance of Tgm1


Psychiatry related information on Tgm1


High impact information on Tgm1


Chemical compound and disease context of Tgm1


Biological context of Tgm1


Anatomical context of Tgm1

  • Retinol increased the activity of TGase 1 hr after release in CHO cells, and the activity remained elevated until hr 4 [1].
  • Induction of apoptosis ex vivo in TGase 2(-/-) thymocytes (by CD95, dexamethasone, etoposide, and H(2)O(2)) and in vitro on TGase 2(-/-) mouse embryonal fibroblasts (by retinoids, UV, and H(2)O(2)) showed no significant differences [12].
  • TGase activity measured on liver and thymus extracts showed, however, a minimal residual activity in TGase 2(-/-) mice [12].
  • Thus, TGase 2-catalyzed protein polymerization contributes to the ultrastructural changes typical of dying apoptotic cells; it stabilizes the integrity of the apoptotic cells, preventing the release of harmful intracellular components into the extracellular space and, consequently, inflammation and scar formation [12].
  • TG activity was low in prenatal mouse forebrain but increased fivefold to peak at P0, which corresponds with the beginning of the mouse BGS [16].

Associations of Tgm1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Tgm1


Co-localisations of Tgm1


Regulatory relationships of Tgm1


Other interactions of Tgm1

  • Transglutaminase and clusterin induction during normal and abnormal limb development in the mouse [23].
  • On the other hand, the peak cytosolic TGase activity occurs in the neonatal period, correlating temporally with muscle prothrombin expression during activity-dependent synapse elimination and possibly the source of the enzyme localized to the NMJ extracellular matrix resulting in synaptic stabilization [14].
  • As the substrates of TGase 1, chronic UVR induced the up-regulation of filaggrin and loricrin in mouse epidermis as well [24].
  • In neonatal mouse skin, TGase 1 mRNA as well as keratin 6alpha was induced in the epidermis at the wound edges as early as 2 hours after injury and that expression continued in the migrating epidermis until completion of re-epithelialization [15].
  • Activation of transglutaminase in mu-calpain null erythrocytes [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tgm1

  • In both cell culture lines, we detected a biphasic increase in TGase activity and a single peak of ODCase activity within 7 hr after release or stimulation [1].
  • Complete absence of TGase 2 was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis [12].
  • PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from the same tissues demonstrated that at least TGase 1 (normally present in the skin) is also expressed in these tissues and contributes to this residual activity [12].
  • Immunoblotting of the isolated junctional fraction revealed that transglutaminase type 1 was concentrated in the fraction not only as a 97-kDa form but also as forms of various molecular masses cross-linked to other proteins [26].
  • Coculture of PM with amphotericin B (AmpB) inhibited the serum-induced expression and accumulation of tissue TGase [27].


  1. Retinoids increase transglutaminase activity and inhibit ornithine decarboxylase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells and in melanoma cells stimulated to differentiate. Scott, K.F., Meyskens, F.L., Russell, D.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Dimethyl sulfoxide-induced transglutaminase activity in murine-derived Friend erythroleukemia cells. Hsu, K.H., Friedman, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Development of ichthyosiform skin compensates for defective permeability barrier function in mice lacking transglutaminase 1. Kuramoto, N., Takizawa, T., Takizawa, T., Matsuki, M., Morioka, H., Robinson, J.M., Yamanishi, K. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Defective stratum corneum and early neonatal death in mice lacking the gene for transglutaminase 1 (keratinocyte transglutaminase). Matsuki, M., Yamashita, F., Ishida-Yamamoto, A., Yamada, K., Kinoshita, C., Fushiki, S., Ueda, E., Morishima, Y., Tabata, K., Yasuno, H., Hashida, M., Iizuka, H., Ikawa, M., Okabe, M., Kondoh, G., Kinoshita, T., Takeda, J., Yamanishi, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Tissue-transglutaminase contributes to neutrophil granulocyte differentiation and functions. Balajthy, Z., Csomós, K., Vámosi, G., Szántó, A., Lanotte, M., Fésüs, L. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. 'Tissue' transglutaminase ablation reduces neuronal death and prolongs survival in a mouse model of Huntington's disease. Mastroberardino, P.G., Iannicola, C., Nardacci, R., Bernassola, F., De Laurenzi, V., Melino, G., Moreno, S., Pavone, F., Oliverio, S., Fesus, L., Piacentini, M. Cell Death Differ. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Tau protein is cross-linked by transglutaminase in P301L tau transgenic mice. Halverson, R.A., Lewis, J., Frausto, S., Hutton, M., Muma, N.A. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Prolonged survival and decreased abnormal movements in transgenic model of Huntington disease, with administration of the transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine. Karpuj, M.V., Becher, M.W., Springer, J.E., Chabas, D., Youssef, S., Pedotti, R., Mitchell, D., Steinman, L. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Retinoic acid-induced gene expression of tissue transglutaminase via protein kinase C-dependent pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Ishii, I., Ui, M. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Tissue transglutaminase 2 inhibition promotes cell death and chemosensitivity in glioblastomas. Yuan, L., Choi, K., Khosla, C., Zheng, X., Higashikubo, R., Chicoine, M.R., Rich, K.M. Mol. Cancer Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Bryostatin 1, an activator of protein kinase C, mimics as well as inhibits biological effects of the phorbol ester TPA in vivo and in vitro. Gschwendt, M., Fürstenberger, G., Rose-John, S., Rogers, M., Kittstein, W., Pettit, G.R., Herald, C.L., Marks, F. Carcinogenesis (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Gene disruption of tissue transglutaminase. De Laurenzi, V., Melino, G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. The promoter of the mouse tissue transglutaminase gene directs tissue-specific, retinoid-regulated and apoptosis-linked expression. Nagy, L., Thomázy, V.A., Saydak, M.M., Stein, J.P., Davies, P.J. Cell Death Differ. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of the dual function tissue transglutaminase/Galpha(h) during murine neuromuscular development: gene and enzyme isoform expression. Citron, B.A., Gregory, E.J., Steigerwalt, D.S., Qin, F., Festoff, B.W. Neurochem. Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Facilitated wound healing by activation of the Transglutaminase 1 gene. Inada, R., Matsuki, M., Yamada, K., Morishima, Y., Shen, S.C., Kuramoto, N., Yasuno, H., Takahashi, K., Miyachi, Y., Yamanishi, K. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Developmental regulation of tissue transglutaminase in the mouse forebrain. Bailey, C.D., Johnson, G.V. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. The protective effects of cystamine in the R6/2 Huntington's disease mouse involve mechanisms other than the inhibition of tissue transglutaminase. Bailey, C.D., Johnson, G.V. Neurobiol. Aging (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. A transglutaminase-related antigen associates with keratin filaments in some mouse epidermal cells. Clement, S., Trejo-Skalli, A.V., Gu, L., Velasco, P.T., Lorand, L., Goldman, R.D. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Activation of the Ras-ERK pathway inhibits retinoic acid-induced stimulation of tissue transglutaminase expression in NIH3T3 cells. Antonyak, M.A., McNeill, C.J., Wakshlag, J.J., Boehm, J.E., Cerione, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. A potential role for ceramide in the regulation of mouse epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Jung, E.M., Griner, R.D., Mann-Blakeney, R., Bollag, W.B. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Phospholipase d signaling and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 phosphorylation (activation) are required for maximal phorbol ester-induced transglutaminase activity, a marker of keratinocyte differentiation. Bollag, W.B., Zhong, X., Dodd, M.E., Hardy, D.M., Zheng, X., Allred, W.T. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Transglutaminase-1 regulates renal epithelial cell proliferation through activation of Stat-3. Zhang, Z., Xing, J., Ma, L., Gong, R., Chin, Y.E., Zhuang, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  23. Transglutaminase and clusterin induction during normal and abnormal limb development in the mouse. Adel Moallem, S., Hales, B.F. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Chronic ultraviolet radiation modulates epidermal differentiation as it up-regulates transglutaminase 1 and its substrates. Lee, D.S., Quan, G., Choi, J.Y., Kim, S.Y., Lee, S.C. Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Activation of transglutaminase in mu-calpain null erythrocytes. O'Neill, G.M., Prasanna Murthy, S.N., Lorand, L., Khanna, R., Liu, S.C., Hanspal, M., Hanada, T., Chishti, A.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Transglutaminase type 1 and its cross-linking activity are concentrated at adherens junctions in simple epithelial cells. Hiiragi, T., Sasaki, H., Nagafuchi, A., Sabe, H., Shen, S.C., Matsuki, M., Yamanishi, K., Tsukita, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Amphotericin B inhibits the serum-induced expression of tissue transglutaminase in murine peritoneal macrophages. Mehta, K., Claringbold, P., Lopez-Berestein, G. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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