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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The pharmacology of halogenated salicylanilides and their anthelmintic use in animals.

The halogenated salicylanilides are a large group of compounds developed mainly for their antiparasitic activity in animals. Several halogenated salicylanilides with potent antiparasitic activity have been synthesised of which only closantel, niclosamide, oxyclozanide, rafoxanide and resorantel are commercially available. Closantel and rafoxanide, which represent the most important drugs in the group, are used extensively for the control of Haemonchus spp. and Fasciola spp. infestations in sheep and cattle and Oestrus ovis in sheep in many parts of the world. Niclosamide is used extensively for its anticestodal activity in a wide range of animals. Antiparasitic activity of the halogenated salicylanilides has also been demonstrated against a large number of other internal parasites, in particular haematophagous helminths, and external parasites including ticks and mites, in a variety of animal species. Several cases of toxicity and mortality have been reported for closantel and rafoxanide in sheep and goats. Their unique pharmacokinetic behaviour appears to play an important role in the efficacy and safety of these compounds. The chemical and physical characteristics, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, antiparasitic activity and toxicity of the halogenated salicylanilides in animals are reviewed.[1]


  1. The pharmacology of halogenated salicylanilides and their anthelmintic use in animals. Swan, G.E. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. (1999) [Pubmed]
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