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Disease relevance of Helminths


Psychiatry related information on Helminths

  • Brugia filarial nematodes are pathogenic lymphatic-dwelling parasites that, like other helminths, may modify the host's defense mechanisms by a major detoxification process involving glutathione-binding proteins such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) [6].

High impact information on Helminths

  • Eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP), a potent toxin for helminths and mammalian cells in vitro, is a single polypeptide chain rich in arginine [1].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results imply that mast cells may contribute to the induction of protective Th2 responses and, importantly, that the intestinal inflammation associated with gastrointestinal helminths is partly mediated by mMCP-1 [7].
  • Interleukin 4 (IL-4) exerts a decisive role in the coordination of protective immune responses against parasites, particularly helminths [8].
  • Through microtubular destruction, mebendazole kills helminths by inhibiting glucose uptake into susceptible parasites [9].
  • Thus, IL-5 contributes in several ways to human immune defenses against various pathogens, including helminths and infectious agents of the digestive and respiratory tracts [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Helminths


Biological context of Helminths


Anatomical context of Helminths


Associations of Helminths with chemical compounds

  • Parasitic helminths are also known to contain two different quinones, Q and rhodoquinone (RQ) [25].
  • The molecular nature of benzimidazole resistance in helminths [26].
  • METHODS: A total of 663 patients were screened for helminths, treated presumptively with albendazole and selectively with praziquantel, and monitored for 6 months [27].
  • Comparison of partial primary sequences of sigma-class glutathione S-transferases (GSH) of parasitic helminths and a GSH-dependent prostaglandin (PG)-H D-isomerase of rat immune accessory cells suggested that some of the helminth enzymes may also be involved in PG biosynthesis [Meyer and Thomas (1995) Biochem. J. 311, 739-742] [28].
  • Reaction of 3-amino derivatives of the nematocides tetramisole and levamisole with variously substituted benzoylisocyanates gave a series of benzoylureas I which were tested for activity against helminths and ectoparasites [29].

Gene context of Helminths

  • Thus, filarial helminths, through products of their endobacteria such as WSP, acquire characteristics of a typical microbial pathogen inducing immune responses via TLR2 and TLR4 [30].
  • Production of enzymes inactivating eotaxin may be a strategy employed by helminths to prevent recruitment and activation of eosinophils at the site of infection [31].
  • Taken together with observations of IL-9 production following infection with other helminths, the results imply that IL-9 contributes to the general mast cell and IgE response characteristic of these infections and, more specifically, enhances resistance to T. muris [32].
  • Moreover, there were fewer cells expressing IFN-gamma and more cells expressing IL-10 in individuals co-infected with HTLV-I and helminths [33].
  • Eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP), a potent toxin for helminths and mammalian cells, is a single polypeptide rich in arginine [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Helminths


  1. Acidic polyamino acids inhibit human eosinophil granule major basic protein toxicity. Evidence of a functional role for ProMBP. Barker, R.L., Gundel, R.H., Gleich, G.J., Checkel, J.L., Loegering, D.A., Pease, L.R., Hamann, K.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. The role of interleukin-13 in infectious diseases and allergy. Brombacher, F. Bioessays (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Serum retinol concentrations and Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal helminths, and malarial parasitemia: a cross-sectional study in Kenyan preschool and primary school children. Friis, H., Mwaniki, D., Omondi, B., Muniu, E., Magnussen, P., Geissler, W., Thiong'o, F., Michaelsen, K.F. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Helminthic infection down-regulates type 1 immune responses in human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carriers and is more prevalent in HTLV-1 carriers than in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Porto, A.F., Santos, S.B., Muniz, A.L., Basilio, V., Rodrigues, W., Neva, F.A., Dutra, W.O., Gollob, K.J., Jacobson, S., Carvalho, E.M. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. In vitro efficacies of nitazoxanide and other thiazolides against Neospora caninum tachyzoites reveal antiparasitic activity independent of the nitro group. Esposito, M., Stettler, R., Moores, S.L., Pidathala, C., Müller, N., Stachulski, A., Berry, N.G., Rossignol, J.F., Hemphill, A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification and localization of glutathione S-transferase as a potential target enzyme in Brugia species. Rao, U.R., Salinas, G., Mehta, K., Klei, T.R. Parasitol. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Mouse mast cell protease-1 is required for the enteropathy induced by gastrointestinal helminth infection in the mouse. Lawrence, C.E., Paterson, Y.Y., Wright, S.H., Knight, P.A., Miller, H.R. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Two distinct functional sites of human interleukin 4 are identified by variants impaired in either receptor binding or receptor activation. Kruse, N., Shen, B.J., Arnold, S., Tony, H.P., Müller, T., Sebald, W. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Mebendazole. Keystone, J.S., Murdoch, J.K. Ann. Intern. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Segregation analysis indicates a major gene in the control of interleukine-5 production in humans infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Rodrigues, V., Abel, L., Piper, K., Dessein, A.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Nitazoxanide, a potential drug for eradication of Helicobacter pylori with no cross-resistance to metronidazole. Mégraud, F., Occhialini, A., Rossignol, J.F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Concomitant parasitism: bancroftian filariasis and intestinal helminths and response to albendazole. Sahoo, P.K., Satapathy, A.K., Michael, E., Ravindran, B. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Fumarate reductase: a target for therapeutic intervention against Helicobacter pylori. Mendz, G.L., Hazell, S.L., Srinivasan, S. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. A field study of the effect of ivermectin on intestinal helminths in man. Whitworth, J.A., Morgan, D., Maude, G.H., McNicholas, A.M., Taylor, D.W. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. A randomized trial comparing mebendazole and secnidazole for the treatment of giardiasis. Escobedo, A.A., Cañete, R., Gonzalez, M.E., Pareja, A., Cimerman, S., Almirall, P. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Loss of complement activation and leukocyte adherence as Nippostrongylus brasiliensis develops within the murine host. Giacomin, P.R., Wang, H., Gordon, D.L., Botto, M., Dent, L.A. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Multiple lineages of the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) in parasitic helminths: implications for molecular evolutionary studies of facultatively anaerobic eukaryotes. van Herwerden, L., Blair, D., Agatsuma, T. J. Mol. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Rhodoquinone is synthesized de novo by Fasciola hepatica. Van Hellemond, J.J., Luijten, M., Flesch, F.M., Gaasenbeek, C.P., Tielens, A.G. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using an arc 5 antigen for the diagnosis of cystic hydatid disease. Hira, P.R., Bahr, G.M., Shweiki, H.M., Behbehani, K. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Antiprotozoal activities of benzimidazoles and correlations with beta-tubulin sequence. Katiyar, S.K., Gordon, V.R., McLaughlin, G.L., Edlind, T.D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Eosinophilic meningitis and hydrocephalus in an infant. Enzenauer, R.W., Yamaoka, R.M. Arch. Neurol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Controlled test of the efficacy of the feed premix formulation of crufomate on the parasites of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs of dairy calves. Lyons, E.T., Tolliver, S.C., Drudge, J.H. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Phospholipase B activity in congenitally athymic (nude) mice infected with Trichinella spiralis. Groven, A.J., Moore, G.W. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde (Berlin, Germany) (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Nitric oxide in infectious and autoimmune diseases. Liew, F.Y. Ciba Found. Symp. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Rhodoquinone and complex II of the electron transport chain in anaerobically functioning eukaryotes. Van Hellemond, J.J., Klockiewicz, M., Gaasenbeek, C.P., Roos, M.H., Tielens, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. The molecular nature of benzimidazole resistance in helminths. Roos, M.H. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Helminth infection is not associated with faster progression of HIV disease in coinfected adults in Uganda. Brown, M., Kizza, M., Watera, C., Quigley, M.A., Rowland, S., Hughes, P., Whitworth, J.A., Elliott, A.M. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Purification and characterization of prostaglandin-H E-isomerase, a sigma-class glutathione S-transferase, from Ascaridia galli. Meyer, D.J., Muimo, R., Thomas, M., Coates, D., Isaac, R.E. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of 3'-benzoylurea derivatives of 6-phenyl-2,3,5,6-tetrahydroimidazo[2,1-b]thiazole. Weikert, R.J., Bingham, S., Emanuel, M.A., Fraser-Smith, E.B., Loughhead, D.G., Nelson, P.H., Poulton, A.L. J. Med. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. The major surface protein of Wolbachia endosymbionts in filarial nematodes elicits immune responses through TLR2 and TLR4. Brattig, N.W., Bazzocchi, C., Kirschning, C.J., Reiling, N., Büttner, D.W., Ceciliani, F., Geisinger, F., Hochrein, H., Ernst, M., Wagner, H., Bandi, C., Hoerauf, A. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Eotaxin is specifically cleaved by hookworm metalloproteases preventing its action in vitro and in vivo. Culley, F.J., Brown, A., Conroy, D.M., Sabroe, I., Pritchard, D.I., Williams, T.J. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Interleukin-9 enhances resistance to the intestinal nematode Trichuris muris. Faulkner, H., Renauld, J.C., Van Snick, J., Grencis, R.K. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Clinical and immunological consequences of human T cell leukemia virus type-I and Schistosoma mansoni co-infection. Santos, S.B., Porto, A.F., Muniz, A.L., Jesus, A.R., Carvalho, E.M. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Cloning and sequence analysis of the human gene encoding eosinophil major basic protein. Barker, R.L., Loegering, D.A., Arakawa, K.C., Pease, L.R., Gleich, G.J. Gene (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Detection of IgE antibodies in onchocerciasis. Possibility of using allergens from Dipetalonema viteae extracts that cross-react with allergenic determinants in crude extracts of Onchocerca volvulus. Kouemeni, L.E., Haque, A., Capron, A. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  36. A new serological technique, time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA), for the immunological diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis. Aceti, A., Pennica, A., Celestino, D., Paparo, S.B., Caferro, M., Sanguigni, S., Marangi, M., Sebastiani, A. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. STAT-6 is an absolute requirement for murine rejection of Hymenolepis diminuta. McKay, D.M., Khan, W.I. J. Parasitol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Reinfection with intestinal helminths after treatment with mebendazole and fluctuations in individual Ascaris lumbricoides infections with time. Shield, J., Anian, G., Ostwald, R., Arnhold, R. Papua and New Guinea medical journal. (1984) [Pubmed]
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