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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The use of NMDA-receptor antagonists in the treatment of chronic pain.

Chronic pain can be maintained by a state of sensitization within the central nervous system that is mediated in part by the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate binding to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. A number of antagonists to the NMDA receptor are antinociceptive in animal models but are associated with significant dose-limiting side effects. Commercially available NMDA-receptor antagonists include ketamine, dextromethorphan, memantine, and amantadine. The opioids methadone, dextropropoxyphene, and ketobemidone are also antagonists at the NMDA receptor. The NMDA-receptor antagonists have a significant impact on the development of tolerance to opioid analgesics. Consequently, NMDA-receptor antagonists may represent a new class of analgesics and may have potential as coanalgesics when used in combination with opioids.[1]


  1. The use of NMDA-receptor antagonists in the treatment of chronic pain. Hewitt, D.J. The Clinical journal of pain. (2000) [Pubmed]
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