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Chemical Compound Review

Memantin     3,5-dimethyladamantan-1-amine

Synonyms: Memantina, memantine, Memantinum, Ebixa, Exiba, ...
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Disease relevance of memantine


Psychiatry related information on memantine


High impact information on memantine

  • Moreover, NR1/NR3A or -3B receptors form relatively Ca2+-impermeable cation channels that are resistant to Mg2+, MK-801, memantine and competitive antagonists [12].
  • Behavioral pain responses to noxious mechanical stimulation were inhibited in a reversible, dose-dependent manner by intravenous administration of memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor [13].
  • A set of arginine-rich hexapeptides selectively blocked the NMDA receptor channel with IC50 approximately 100 nM, a potency similar to clinically tolerated blockers such as memantine, and only marginally blocked on non-NMDA glutamate receptors [14].
  • In 2004 the FDA approved memantine, an NMDA antagonist, for treating dementia symptoms in moderate to severe AD cases [7].
  • This laboratory recently reported that memantine, an antiparkinsonian drug, is a potent N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist capable of preventing the death of central neurons both in vitro and in vivo when given coincident to an EAA insult [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of memantine


Biological context of memantine


Anatomical context of memantine


Associations of memantine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of memantine

  • The up-regulations observed after memantine (cortex, NR2B: 172+/-17%; hippocampus, NR1-1/1-2: 156+/-8%) or MK-801 (cortex, NR2B: 174+/-22%; hippocampus, NR1-1/1-2: 140+/-3%) were almost identical [36].
  • 3. Memantine (0.3-30 microM) blocked L-glutamate (100 microM)-mediated currents in a concentration-dependent manner in NR1a/NR2A, NR1a/NR2B and NR1a/NR2D transfected cells with IC50 values (at -70 mV) of 0.93 +/- 0.15 microM, 0.82 +/- 0.12 microM and 0.47 +/- 0.06 microM (mean +/- s.c. mean), respectively [37].
  • RESULTS: In HLM, memantine inhibited CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 activities, with KI (IC50) values of 76.7 (279.7) and 94.9 (368.7) microM, respectively [38].
  • Treatment with memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, also increased the serine-phosphorylation of both GSK3 isoforms in mouse brain [39].
  • Memantine blocked and could be trapped by recombinant NMDA receptors composed of NR1 and either NR2A or NR2B subunits [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of memantine


  1. Pharmacotoxic psychosis after memantine in Parkinson's disease. Riederer, P., Lange, K.W., Kornhuber, J., Danielczyk, W. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Synergistic neurotoxicity by human immunodeficiency virus proteins Tat and gp120: protection by memantine. Nath, A., Haughey, N.J., Jones, M., Anderson, C., Bell, J.E., Geiger, J.D. Ann. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist improves hyperammonemia-induced encephalopathy and acute hepatic encephalopathy in rats. Vogels, B.A., Maas, M.A., Daalhuisen, J., Quack, G., Chamuleau, R.A. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Pharmacology and structure-activity relationships of bioactive polycyclic cage compounds: a focus on pentacycloundecane derivatives. Geldenhuys, W.J., Malan, S.F., Bloomquist, J.R., Marchand, A.P., Van der Schyf, C.J. Medicinal research reviews. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Memantine is neuroprotective in a rat model of pressure-induced retinal ischemia. Lagrèze, W.A., Knörle, R., Bach, M., Feuerstein, T.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Memantine reduces hematoma expansion in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage, resulting in functional improvement. Lee, S.T., Chu, K., Jung, K.H., Kim, J., Kim, E.H., Kim, S.J., Sinn, D.I., Ko, S.Y., Kim, M., Roh, J.K. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Current pharmacotherapy for Alzheimer's disease. Lleó, A., Greenberg, S.M., Growdon, J.H. Annu. Rev. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Memantine and catatonic schizophrenia. Thomas, C., Carroll, B.T., Maley, R.T., Jayanti, K., Koduri, A. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Pharmacokinetic study of memantine in healthy and renally impaired subjects. Periclou, A., Ventura, D., Rao, N., Abramowitz, W. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Nitrous oxide and xenon prevent amphetamine-induced carrier-mediated dopamine release in a memantine-like fashion and protect against behavioral sensitization. David, H.N., Ansseau, M., Lemaire, M., Abraini, J.H. Biol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Visual hallucinations from the addition of riluzole to memantine and bupropion. Pittenger, C., Naungayan, C., Kendell, S.F., Coric, V., Malison, R., Krystal, J.H., Sanacora, G.S. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Excitatory glycine receptors containing the NR3 family of NMDA receptor subunits. Chatterton, J.E., Awobuluyi, M., Premkumar, L.S., Takahashi, H., Talantova, M., Shin, Y., Cui, J., Tu, S., Sevarino, K.A., Nakanishi, N., Tong, G., Lipton, S.A., Zhang, D. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of peripheral N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in visceral nociception in rats. McRoberts, J.A., Coutinho, S.V., Marvizón, J.C., Grady, E.F., Tognetto, M., Sengupta, J.N., Ennes, H.S., Chaban, V.V., Amadesi, S., Creminon, C., Lanthorn, T., Geppetti, P., Bunnett, N.W., Mayer, E.A. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Selected peptides targeted to the NMDA receptor channel protect neurons from excitotoxic death. Ferrer-Montiel, A.V., Merino, J.M., Blondelle, S.E., Perez-Payà, E., Houghten, R.A., Montal, M. Nat. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Delayed administration of memantine prevents N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. Pellegrini, J.W., Lipton, S.A. Ann. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Chronic low-dose glutamate is toxic to retinal ganglion cells. Toxicity blocked by memantine. Vorwerk, C.K., Lipton, S.A., Zurakowski, D., Hyman, B.T., Sabel, B.A., Dreyer, E.B. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of the effects of MK-801, ketamine and memantine on responses of spinal dorsal horn neurones in a rat model of mononeuropathy. Suzuki, R., Matthews, E.A., Dickenson, A.H. Pain (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Pharmacology of vertigo/nystagmus/oscillopsia. Straube, A. Curr. Opin. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Symptomatic effect of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and memantine on cognitive deficits in the APP23 model. Van Dam, D., Abramowski, D., Staufenbiel, M., De Deyn, P.P. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists attenuate NMDA-induced impairment of passive avoidance learning and LTP. Zajaczkowski, W., Frankiewicz, T., Parsons, C.G., Danysz, W. Neuropharmacology (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Memantine inhibits efferent cholinergic transmission in the cochlea by blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of outer hair cells. Oliver, D., Ludwig, J., Reisinger, E., Zoellner, W., Ruppersberg, J.P., Fakler, B. Mol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Mechanism of memantine block of NMDA-activated channels in rat retinal ganglion cells: uncompetitive antagonism. Chen, H.S., Lipton, S.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction of apoptosis in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells is counteracted by flupirtine. Osborne, N.N., Cazevieille, C., Pergande, G., Wood, J.P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, I: Functional measures. Hare, W.A., WoldeMussie, E., Lai, R.K., Ton, H., Ruiz, G., Chun, T., Wheeler, L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Open-channel block of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) responses by memantine: therapeutic advantage against NMDA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. Chen, H.S., Pellegrini, J.W., Aggarwal, S.K., Lei, S.Z., Warach, S., Jensen, F.E., Lipton, S.A. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Human neurons express the polyspecific cation transporter hOCT2, which translocates monoamine neurotransmitters, amantadine, and memantine. Busch, A.E., Karbach, U., Miska, D., Gorboulev, V., Akhoundova, A., Volk, C., Arndt, P., Ulzheimer, J.C., Sonders, M.S., Baumann, C., Waldegger, S., Lang, F., Koepsell, H. Mol. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Efficacy and safety of memantine treatment for reduction of changes associated with experimental glaucoma in monkey, II: Structural measures. Hare, W.A., WoldeMussie, E., Weinreb, R.N., Ton, H., Ruiz, G., Wijono, M., Feldmann, B., Zangwill, L., Wheeler, L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Neuropathologic changes in Alzheimer's disease: potential targets for treatment. Wenk, G.L. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Antinociceptive activity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist N-(2-Indanyl)-glycinamide hydrochloride (CHF3381) in experimental models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Villetti, G., Bergamaschi, M., Bassani, F., Bolzoni, P.T., Maiorino, M., Pietra, C., Rondelli, I., Chamiot-Clerc, P., Simonato, M., Barbieri, M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Human brain N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors regulating noradrenaline release are positively modulated by HIV-1 coat protein gp120. Pittaluga, A., Pattarini, R., Severi, P., Raiteri, M. AIDS (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Platelet-activating factor: a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced neurotoxin. Gelbard, H.A., Nottet, H.S., Swindells, S., Jett, M., Dzenko, K.A., Genis, P., White, R., Wang, L., Choi, Y.B., Zhang, D. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. The NMDA receptor complex: a promising target for novel antiepileptic strategies. Kohl, B.K., Dannhardt, G. Current medicinal chemistry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Comparison of the effects of ketamine and memantine on prolactin and cortisol release in men. a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Hergovich, N., Singer, E., Agneter, E., Eichler, H.G., Graselli, U., Simhandl, C., Jilma, B. Neuropsychopharmacology (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Preclinical investigation of the functional effects of memantine and memantine combined with galantamine or donepezil. Woodruff-Pak, D.S., Tobia, M.J., Jiao, X., Beck, K.D., Servatius, R.J. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  35. Memantine upregulates BDNF and prevents dopamine deficits in SIV-infected macaques: a novel pharmacological action of memantine. Meisner, F., Scheller, C., Kneitz, S., Sopper, S., Neuen-Jacob, E., Riederer, P., ter Meulen, V., Koutsilieri, E. Neuropsychopharmacology (2008) [Pubmed]
  36. The anti-craving compound acamprosate acts as a weak NMDA-receptor antagonist, but modulates NMDA-receptor subunit expression similar to memantine and MK-801. Rammes, G., Mahal, B., Putzke, J., Parsons, C., Spielmanns, P., Pestel, E., Spanagel, R., Zieglgänsberger, W., Schadrack, J. Neuropharmacology (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Bresink, I., Benke, T.A., Collett, V.J., Seal, A.J., Parsons, C.G., Henley, J.M., Collingridge, G.L. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Inhibitory effects of memantine on human cytochrome P450 activities: prediction of in vivo drug interactions. Micuda, S., Mundlova, L., Anzenbacherova, E., Anzenbacher, P., Chladek, J., Fuksa, L., Martinkova, J. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. In vivo regulation of GSK3 phosphorylation by cholinergic and NMDA receptors. De Sarno, P., Bijur, G.N., Zmijewska, A.A., Li, X., Jope, R.S. Neurobiol. Aging (2006) [Pubmed]
  40. Trapping channel block of NMDA-activated responses by amantadine and memantine. Blanpied, T.A., Boeckman, F.A., Aizenman, E., Johnson, J.W. J. Neurophysiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  41. The neuroprotective agent memantine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor and trkB receptor expression in rat brain. Marvanová, M., Lakso, M., Pirhonen, J., Nawa, H., Wong, G., Castrén, E. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  42. Memantine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Robinson, D.M., Keating, G.M. Drugs (2006) [Pubmed]
  43. A 24-week open-label extension study of memantine in moderate to severe Alzheimer disease. Reisberg, B., Doody, R., Stöffler, A., Schmitt, F., Ferris, S., Möbius, H.J. Arch. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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