The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A useful model to study the effect of high sugar concentrations upon growth and enzymic activities of toad embryos and larvae.

The aim of this study was to develop an oviparous model suitable for studying the differential effects and mechanisms by which a high concentration of extracellular glucose and other sugars produce diabetes complications, particularly body growth retardation during development. Hence, we studied the experimental conditions necessary to obtain measurable effects of high sugar concentrations (5-mM glucose, mannitol, fructose and galactose) upon body growth and development of Bufo arenarum embryos and larvae, and upon the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase ( GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (APP). Unfed animals kept in glucose showed lower body weight than controls at all stages, a condition only observed at stage 26 for animals kept in galactose and fructose. All animals reached the same stage of development regardless of the solution in which they were kept. Glucose and fructose significantly decreased the activity of all enzymes tested, while galactose only affected GGT activity. The model provides the first experimental evidence for the deleterious effect exerted in vivo by different sugars upon developing embryos and larvaes of Bufo arenarum. The results prove that this model might help to elucidate the effects and the pathogenic mechanisms of hyperglycemia upon growth and development of embryos exposed to environments with high sugar concentrations. It might also become a useful tool for testing the effectiveness of drugs designed to prevent the deleterious effect of such exposure.[1]


  1. A useful model to study the effect of high sugar concentrations upon growth and enzymic activities of toad embryos and larvae. Francini, F., Picasso, M., Rebolledo, O.R., Salibián, A., Gagliardino, J.J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities