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Gene Review

GGT1  -  gamma-glutamyltransferase 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CD224, D22S672, D22S732, GGT, GGT 1, ...
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Disease relevance of GGT1


Psychiatry related information on GGT1


High impact information on GGT1


Chemical compound and disease context of GGT1


Biological context of GGT1

  • We have identified the gene for human gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT; glutamine:D-glutamyl-peptide 5-glutamyltransferase (also called gamma-glutamyltransferase), EC] in a BCR gene-related region located in band q11----qter of chromosome 22 [1].
  • We have isolated two clones, one 2,632 base pairs (bp) long from a fetal liver cDNA library and one 926 bp long from an adult liver cDNA library, each containing a 22-bp insertion that introduces a premature stop codon and shortens the open reading frame to 1,098 bp when compared with known human cDNA sequences specific for GGT [2].
  • On the other hand, AA oxidation and stimulation of cellular uptake were indeed observed after transfection of 2/21 cells with cDNA coding for GGT [4].
  • Based on sequence determination of exons within these distinct genomic clones, oligonucleotide primers were designed which would prime and PCR-amplify putative mRNA of all seven potential GGT genes, if expressed [21].
  • Although the human genome contains multiple GGT genomic sequences, the diagnostic tests generally assume that only a single GGT gene is active [21].

Anatomical context of GGT1

  • GGT is expressed on several B and T cell lines independently of CD21 expression [22].
  • These data suggest strongly that the same gene encodes human GGT in the placenta, Hep G2 and the pancreas [23].
  • In addition, in vivo studies showed a relationship between plasma GGT activity and erythrocyte deformability in 20 studied subjects [6].
  • The results obtained demonstrate that the GGT/GSH/iron system oxidises isolated erythrocyte membranes [6].
  • This finding suggests that GGT-mediated NF-kappaB activation plays a role in the control of apoptosis in U937 cells [24].

Associations of GGT1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of GGT1


Regulatory relationships of GGT1


Other interactions of GGT1

  • In most samples two bands were demonstrated, one located between albumin and alpha1-globulin, called GGT 1, the other located in the alpha2-globulin region, GGT 2 [30].
  • Analysis of blood plasma from oligonucleotide-treated animals shows a possible transient elevation in levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), but not alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GT), and bilirubin [31].
  • Evidence for transcripts with multiple 5'UTR coding for HepG2 GGT was obtained by RNase protection [32].
  • In addition to generating polymeric products from human fibrinogen, human erythrocyte transglutaminase (protein-glutamine:amine gamma-glutamyltransferase, EC was shown to catalyze the intramolecular reaction of crosslinking two of the constituent chains within monomeric fibrinogen itself [33].
  • Some of the GGT and GGTLA family members are located on NotI restriction enzyme fragments of a similar size [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GGT1


  1. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of human gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Rajpert-De Meyts, E., Heisterkamp, N., Groffen, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. An alternatively processed mRNA specific for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in human tissues. Pawlak, A., Cohen, E.H., Octave, J.N., Schweickhardt, R., Wu, S.J., Bulle, F., Chikhi, N., Baik, J.H., Siegrist, S., Guellaën, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Three-year increase of gamma-glutamyltransferase level and development of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged men and women: the D.E.S.I.R. cohort. Andr??, P., Balkau, B., Born, C., Charles, M.A., Eschw??ge, E. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Plasma membrane gamma-glutamyltransferase activity facilitates the uptake of vitamin C in melanoma cells. Corti, A., Raggi, C., Franzini, M., Paolicchi, A., Pompella, A., Casini, A.F. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Glucose intolerance and serum aminotransferase activities in Japanese men. Miyake, Y., Eguchi, H., Shinchi, K., Oda, T., Sasazuki, S., Kono, S. J. Hepatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Erythrocytes as targets for gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase initiated pro-oxidant reaction. Aberkane, H., Stoltz, J.F., Galteau, M.M., Wellman, M. Eur. J. Haematol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The associations of physical activity and adiposity with alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Lawlor, D.A., Sattar, N., Smith, G.D., Ebrahim, S. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Use of serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin values to exclude alcoholic hepatitis from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot study. Ohtsuka, T., Tsutsumi, M., Fukumura, A., Tsuchishima, M., Takase, S. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Individual differences in plasma ALT, AST and GGT: contributions of genetic and environmental factors, including alcohol consumption. Whitfield, J.B., Martin, N.G. Enzyme (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Naltrexone and disulfiram in patients with alcohol dependence and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder. Petrakis, I.L., Poling, J., Levinson, C., Nich, C., Carroll, K., Ralevski, E., Rounsaville, B. Biol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Idiopathic biliary ductopenia in adults without symptoms of liver disease. Moreno, A., Carreño, V., Cano, A., González, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. A preliminary study of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, to treat HIV-1 infection. Markowitz, M., Saag, M., Powderly, W.G., Hurley, A.M., Hsu, A., Valdes, J.M., Henry, D., Sattler, F., La Marca, A., Leonard, J.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutation in the gene encoding the stimulatory G protein of adenylate cyclase in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Patten, J.L., Johns, D.R., Valle, D., Eil, C., Gruppuso, P.A., Steele, G., Smallwood, P.M., Levine, M.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning defined regions of the human genome by microdissection of banded chromosomes and enzymatic amplification. Lüdecke, H.J., Senger, G., Claussen, U., Horsthemke, B. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Glutathione-dependent bioactivation of haloalkenes. Anders, M.W., Dekant, W. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Liver enzymes, the metabolic syndrome, and incident diabetes: the Mexico City diabetes study. Nannipieri, M., Gonzales, C., Baldi, S., Posadas, R., Williams, K., Haffner, S.M., Stern, M.P., Ferrannini, E. Diabetes Care (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of moderate alcohol intake in fixed or variable amounts on concentration of serum lipids and liver enzymes in healthy young men. Frimpong, N.A., Lapp, J.A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase is a determinant of insulin resistance independently of adiposity in Pima Indian children. Ortega, E., Koska, J., Salbe, A.D., Tataranni, P.A., Bunt, J.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Evidence for a substantial genetic influence on biochemical liver function tests: results from a population-based Danish twin study. Bathum, L., Petersen, H.C., Rosholm, J.U., Hyltoft Petersen, P., Vaupel, J., Christensen, K. Clin. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Changes in serum enzymes in moderate drinkers after an alcohol challenge. Nemesánszky, E., Lott, J.A., Arato, M. Clin. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of multiple gamma-glutamyltransferase genes in man. Courtay, C., Heisterkamp, N., Siest, G., Groffen, J. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, an ecto-enzyme regulator of intracellular redox potential, is a component of TM4 signal transduction complexes. Nichols, T.C., Guthridge, J.M., Karp, D.R., Molina, H., Fletcher, D.R., Holers, V.M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Gamma-glutamyltransferase: nucleotide sequence of the human pancreatic cDNA. Evidence for a ubiquitous gamma-glutamyltransferase polypeptide in human tissues. Courtay, C., Oster, T., Michelet, F., Visvikis, A., Diederich, M., Wellman, M., Siest, G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity mediates NF-kappaB activation through lipid peroxidation in human leukemia U937 cells. Djavaheri-Mergny, M., Accaoui, M.J., Rouillard, D., Wietzerbin, J. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Oxidative status in patients with alcohol dependence: a clinical study in Taiwan. Peng, F.C., Tang, S.H., Huang, M.C., Chen, C.C., Kuo, T.L., Yin, S.J. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. gamma-Glutamyltransferase isoenzyme pattern in workers exposed to tetrachloroethylene. Gennari, P., Naldi, M., Motta, R., Nucci, M.C., Giacomini, C., Violante, F.S., Raffi, G.B. Am. J. Ind. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase isoform complexed to LDL in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Castaldo, G., Intrieri, M., Castellano, L., de Sio, I., Del Vecchio Blanco, C., Sacchetti, L., Salvatore, F. Clin. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Radiation-induced upregulation of gamma-glutamyltransferase in colon carcinoma cells is mediated through the Ras signal transduction pathway. Pankiv, S., Møller, S., Bjørkøy, G., Moens, U., Huseby, N.E. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Elevation of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in 293 HEK cells constitutively expressing antisense glutaminase mRNA. Wong, K.T., Lee, Y.Y., Brusic, V., Tan, J., Yap, M.G., Nissom, P.M. Metab. Eng. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. A new procedure for the visualization of multiple forms of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Results in normals, patients receiving enzyme-inducing drugs and patients having liver parenchymal lesions. Kok, P.J., Seidel, B., Holtkamp, H.C., Huisman, J. Clin. Chim. Acta (1978) [Pubmed]
  31. Pharmacokinetics of an antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide against rev from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the adult male rat following single injections and continuous infusion. Iversen, P.L., Mata, J., Tracewell, W.G., Zon, G. Antisense Res. Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. The 5' untranslated region of the human gamma-glutamyl transferase mRNA contains a tissue-specific active translational enhancer. Diederich, M., Wellman, M., Visvikis, A., Puga, A., Siest, G. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Intramolecular crosslinking of monomeric fibrinogen by tissue transglutaminase. Murthy, S.N., Wilson, J., Guy, S.L., Lorand, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Localization of a gamma-glutamyl-transferase-related gene family on chromosome 22. Morris, C., Courtay, C., Geurts van Kessel, A., ten Hoeve, J., Heisterkamp, N., Groffen, J. Hum. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. The analysis of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase gene in different type liver tissues. Han, G.Q., Qin, C.Y., Shu, R.H. World J. Gastroenterol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Human chronic fascioliasis: a possible cause of unexplained abnormal liver tests. Hussein, N.G., Mahmoud, M.M., Elsayad, M.H., Abdel-Tawab, S.M. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Clinical laboratory manifestations of exposure to dioxin in children. A six-year study of the effects of an environmental disaster near Seveso, Italy. Mocarelli, P., Marocchi, A., Brambilla, P., Gerthoux, P., Young, D.S., Mantel, N. JAMA (1986) [Pubmed]
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