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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vitro induction of HIV-1 replication in resting CD4(+) T cells derived from individuals with undetectable plasma viremia upon stimulation with human T-cell leukemia virus type I.

Microbial coinfections have been associated with transient bursts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia in patients. In this study we investigated whether human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), another human retrovirus that is prevalent among certain HIV-infected populations, can induce HIV-1 replication in patients who had been successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. We demonstrate that supernatants from HTLV-I-producing MT-2 cells can induce in vitro replication of HIV-1 from highly purified, resting CD4(+) T cells obtained from individuals with undetectable plasma viremia. Depletion of proinflammatory cytokines from the supernatants reduced, but did not abrogate, the ability to induce HIV-1 replication, indicating that other factors such as HTLV-I Tax or Env also have a role. The HTLV-I-mediated effect does not require productive infection: exposure to heat-inactivated HTLV-I virions, purified Tax protein, or HTLV-I Env glycoprotein also induced expression of HIV-1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that coculture of resting CD4(+) T cells with autologous CD8(+) T cells markedly inhibits the HTLV-I-induced virus replication. Our results suggest that coinfection with HTLV-I may induce viral replication in the latent viral reservoirs; however, CD8(+) T cells may play an important role in controlling the spread of virus upon microbial stimulation.[1]


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