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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Viremia


High impact information on Viremia

  • The reduction in viremia correlated with the levels of hyperglucosylated glycan in the serum of treated animals [6].
  • In viremic patients the presence of IFN-gamma-producing cells was restricted to periods of elevated viremia [2].
  • These observations may explain the failure of AZT therapy to clear viremia, consistent with the presence of a drug-resistant reservoir of infected cells in vivo [7].
  • MHC class II genotype and the control of viremia in HIV-1-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy [8].
  • This therapeutic regimen resulted in a remarkable increase in the number of CD4+ cells and in the prolonged reduction of the levels of viremia [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Viremia

  • Group 2 mice received only verapamil orally starting on day 4 after infection, coincident with peak viremia [4].
  • Interferon alone (P < 0.05) or with ribavirin (P < 0.01) significantly decreased the viral population, resulting in sustained loss of viremia with normal enzyme levels in 2 of 9 and 3 of 9 patients, respectively, in each therapy during follow-up [10].
  • Independent predictors of sustained response were undetectable viremia at the first month of therapy (P < 0.001), undetectable viremia at the third month (P < 0.001), younger age (P = 0.006), nonsporadic infection (P = 0.012), and higher pretreatment aspartate aminotransferase levels (P = 0.032) [11].
  • 3-year suppression of HIV viremia with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine [12].
  • We treated 12 patients who had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and active HTLV-III/LAV viremia with suramin, a potent competitive inhibitor of reverse transcriptase, in six weekly induction doses of 1 g, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 500 mg [13].

Biological context of Viremia


Anatomical context of Viremia


Gene context of Viremia


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Viremia


  1. A pilot study of low-dose zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Collier, A.C., Bozzette, S., Coombs, R.W., Causey, D.M., Schoenfeld, D.A., Spector, S.A., Pettinelli, C.B., Davies, G., Richman, D.D., Leedom, J.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. HIV-1 viremia prevents the establishment of interleukin 2-producing HIV-specific memory CD4+ T cells endowed with proliferative capacity. Younes, S.A., Yassine-Diab, B., Dumont, A.R., Boulassel, M.R., Grossman, Z., Routy, J.P., Sekaly, R.P. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Anti-Friend virus antibody is associated with recovery from viremia and loss of viral leukemia cell-surface antigens in leukemic mice. Identification of Rfv-3 as a gene locus influencing antibody production. Doig, D., Chesebro, B. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Verapamil ameliorates the clinical and pathological course of murine myocarditis. Dong, R., Liu, P., Wee, L., Butany, J., Sole, M.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Hepatitis C virus-specific T-cell reactivity during interferon and ribavirin treatment in chronic hepatitis C. Cramp, M.E., Rossol, S., Chokshi, S., Carucci, P., Williams, R., Naoumov, N.V. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Treatment of chronic hepadnavirus infection in a woodchuck animal model with an inhibitor of protein folding and trafficking. Block, T.M., Lu, X., Mehta, A.S., Blumberg, B.S., Tennant, B., Ebling, M., Korba, B., Lansky, D.M., Jacob, G.S., Dwek, R.A. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Failure of dideoxynucleosides to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus replication in cultured human macrophages. Richman, D.D., Kornbluth, R.S., Carson, D.A. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. MHC class II genotype and the control of viremia in HIV-1-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Blankson, J.N., Siliciano, R.F. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of subcutaneous interleukin-2 therapy on CD4 subsets and in vitro cytokine production in HIV+ subjects. De Paoli, P., Zanussi, S., Simonelli, C., Bortolin, M.T., D'Andrea, M., Crepaldi, C., Talamini, R., Comar, M., Giacca, M., Tirelli, U. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. A pilot study of ribavirin and interferon beta for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Kakumu, S., Yoshioka, K., Wakita, T., Ishikawa, T., Takayanagi, M., Higashi, Y. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Viremia after one month of interferon therapy predicts treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gavier, B., Martínez-González, M.A., Riezu-Boj, J.I., Lasarte, J.J., Garcia, N., Civeira, M.P., Prieto, J. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. 3-year suppression of HIV viremia with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. Gulick, R.M., Mellors, J.W., Havlir, D., Eron, J.J., Meibohm, A., Condra, J.H., Valentine, F.T., McMahon, D., Gonzalez, C., Jonas, L., Emini, E.A., Chodakewitz, J.A., Isaacs, R., Richman, D.D. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Suramin antiviral therapy in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinical, immunological, and virologic results. Levine, A.M., Gill, P.S., Cohen, J., Hawkins, J.G., Formenti, S.C., Aguilar, S., Meyer, P.R., Krailo, M., Parker, J., Rasheed, S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Decreased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 plasma viremia during antiretroviral therapy reflects downregulation of viral replication in lymphoid tissue. Cohen, O.J., Pantaleo, G., Holodniy, M., Schnittman, S., Niu, M., Graziosi, C., Pavlakis, G.N., Lalezari, J., Bartlett, J.A., Steigbigel, R.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Chronic hepatitis associated with GB virus B persistence in a tamarin after intrahepatic inoculation of synthetic viral RNA. Martin, A., Bodola, F., Sangar, D.V., Goettge, K., Popov, V., Rijnbrand, R., Lanford, R.E., Lemon, S.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Coinfection study of precore mutant and wild-type hepatitis B-like virus in ducklings. Chuang, W.L., Omata, M., Ehata, T., Yokosuka, O., Hosoda, K., Imazeki, F., Ohto, M. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Significance of anti-E2 in the diagnosis of HCV infection in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: anti-E2 is frequently detected among anti-HCV antibody-negative patients. Lee, D.S., Lesniewski, R.R., Sung, Y.C., Min, W.K., Park, S.G., Lee, K.H., Kim, H.S. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Natural immunity to Sindbis virus is influenced by host tissue sialic acid content. Hirsch, R.L., Griffin, D.E., Winkelstein, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Hepatic expression of hepatitis C virus RNA in chronic hepatitis C: a study by in situ reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lau, G.K., Davis, G.L., Wu, S.P., Gish, R.G., Balart, L.A., Lau, J.Y. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunization with a modified vaccinia virus expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol primes for an anamnestic Gag-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and is associated with reduction of viremia after SIV challenge. Seth, A., Ourmanov, I., Schmitz, J.E., Kuroda, M.J., Lifton, M.A., Nickerson, C.E., Wyatt, L., Carroll, M., Moss, B., Venzon, D., Letvin, N.L., Hirsch, V.M. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Time to detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood leukocytes is a predictor for the development of CMV disease in CMV-seronegative recipients of allografts from CMV-seropositive donors following liver transplantation. Manez, R., Kusne, S., Rinaldo, C., Aguado, J.M., St George, K., Grossi, P., Frye, B., Fung, J.J., Ehrlich, G.D. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of chemokine and inhibitory receptors on natural killer cells: effect of immune activation and HIV viremia. Kottilil, S., Shin, K., Planta, M., McLaughlin, M., Hallahan, C.W., Ghany, M., Chun, T.W., Sneller, M.C., Fauci, A.S. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Relationship between the frequency of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells and the level of CD38+CD8+ T cells in untreated HIV-infected individuals. Chun, T.W., Justement, J.S., Sanford, C., Hallahan, C.W., Planta, M.A., Loutfy, M., Kottilil, S., Moir, S., Kovacs, C., Fauci, A.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. CD30 induction and cytokine profiles in hepatitis C virus core-specific peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Woitas, R.P., Lechmann, M., Jung, G., Kaiser, R., Sauerbruch, T., Spengler, U. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 are major coreceptors of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 variants isolated from individuals with and without plasma viremia. Blaak, H., Boers, P.H., Gruters, R.A., Schuitemaker, H., van der Ende, M.E., Osterhaus, A.D. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Chromosome mapping of Rfv3, a host resistance gene to Friend murine retrovirus. Hasenkrug, K.J., Valenzuela, A., Letts, V.A., Nishio, J., Chesebro, B., Frankel, W.N. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G mRNA levels do not correlate with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 plasma viremia or CD4+ T-cell count. Cho, S.J., Drechsler, H., Burke, R.C., Arens, M.Q., Powderly, W., Davidson, N.O. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Streptococcus pyogenes preparation OK-432: immunoprophylactic and immunotherapeutic effects on the incidence of spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice. Aoki, T., Kvedar, J.P., Hollis, V.W., Bushar, G.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. X region deletion mutants associated with surface antigen-positive hepatitis B virus infections. Feitelson, M.A., Duan, L.X., Guo, J., Blumberg, B.S. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Passive immunotherapy prevents expression of endogenous Moloney virus and amplification of proviral DNA in BALB/Mo mice. Nobis, P., Jaenisch, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. Retrospective analysis of HHV-8 viremia and cellular viral load in HIV-seropositive patients receiving interleukin 2 in combination with antiretroviral therapy. Malnati, M., Broccolo, F., Nozza, S., Sarmati, L., Ghezzi, S., Locatelli, G., Delfanti, F., Capiluppi, B., Careddu, A., Andreoni, M., Monini, P., Poli, G., Lazzarin, A., Lusso, P., Tambussi, G. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Persistent viremia after recovery from self-limited acute hepatitis B. Yotsuyanagi, H., Yasuda, K., Iino, S., Moriya, K., Shintani, Y., Fujie, H., Tsutsumi, T., Kimura, S., Koike, K. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
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