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MeSH Review

Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active

 Chang,  Ernst,  St Hillaire,  Conant,  Chang,  Ernst,  Witt,  Ames,  Walot,  Jovicich,  DeSilva,  Trivedi,  Speck,  Miller,  Hoffmann,  Tiemann,  Schrader,  Janssen,  Wolf,  Vierbuchen,  Parwaresch,  Ernestus,  Plettenberg,  Stoehr,  Fatkenheuer,  Wyen,  Oette,  Horst,  Cossarizza,  Riva,  Pinti,  Ammannato,  Fedeli,  Mussini,  Esposito,  Galli,  Samet,  Horton,  Traphagen,  Lyon,  Freedberg,  Behrens,  Boerner,  Weber,  van den Hoff,  Ockenga,  Brabant,  Schmidt,  Malavaud,  Dinh,  Bonnet,  Izopet,  Payen,  Marchou,  Viganò,  Aldrovandi,  Giacomet,  Merlo,  Martelli,  Beretta,  Luraschi,  Rombolà,  Mora,  Burger,  Aarnoutse,  Dieleman,  Gyssens,  Nouwen,  de Marie,  Koopmans,  Stek,  van der Ende,  Nolan,  Chidlow,  French,  Marseille,  Hofmann,  Kahn,  Davey,  Bhat,  Yoder,  Chun,  Metcalf,  Dewar,  Natarajan,  Lempicki,  Adelsberger,  Miller,  Kovacs,  Polis,  Walker,  Falloon,  Masur,  Gee,  Baseler,  Dimitrov,  Fauci,  Lane,  Jacobson,  Zegans,  Pavan,  O'Donnell,  Sattler,  Rao,  Owens,  Pollard,  Young,  Weber,  Rickenbach,  Furrer,  Bernasconi,  Hirschel,  Tarr,  Vernazza,  Battegay,  Bucher,  Chun,  Engel,  Mizell,  Hallahan,  Fischette,  Park,  Davey,  Dybul,  Kovacs,  Metcalf,  Mican,  Berrey,  Corey,  Lane,  Fauci,  Zaccarelli,  Perno,  Forbici,  Cingolani,  Liuzzi,  Bertoli,  Trotta,  Bellocchi,  Di Giambenedetto,  Tozzi,  Gori,  D'Arrigo,  De Longis,  Noto,  Girardi,  De Luca,  Antinori,  Domingo,  Sambeat,  Pérez,  Ordoñez,  Rodriguez,  Vázquez,  
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Disease relevance of Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active


Psychiatry related information on Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active


High impact information on Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active


Chemical compound and disease context of Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active


Biological context of Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active


Anatomical context of Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active


Associations of Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active with chemical compounds


Gene context of Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active

  • Zidovudine-based HAART recipients (n=7) also displayed significant mtDNA depletion (34.45% of control, P=0.031), increased mitochondrial protein mass (5.7-fold of control, P=0.009), and markedly increased UCP1 (18-fold of control, P=0.009) mRNA [22].
  • Involvement of Bcl-2 and IL-2R in HIV-positive patients whose CD4 cell counts fail to increase rapidly with highly active antiretroviral therapy [35].
  • This analysis was repeated after one cycle of HAART + IL-2, after virus rebound [36].
  • Increased CCR-3 expression and spontaneous IFN-gamma as well as mitogenic induced IL-13 were observed at baseline and decreased slightly under HAART [37].
  • Decreased CD14/CD69 levels may reflect changes in some aspects of the pathophysiology of brain injury in the era of HAART [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active


  1. Restoration of cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses after ganciclovir and highly active antiretroviral therapy in individuals infected with HIV-1. Komanduri, K.V., Viswanathan, M.N., Wieder, E.D., Schmidt, D.K., Bredt, B.M., Jacobson, M.A., McCune, J.M. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. HIV prevention before HAART in sub-Saharan Africa. Marseille, E., Hofmann, P.B., Kahn, J.G. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Jacobson, M.A., Zegans, M., Pavan, P.R., O'Donnell, J.J., Sattler, F., Rao, N., Owens, S., Pollard, R. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased mitochondrial toxicity with ribavirin in HIV/HCV coinfection. Lafeuillade, A., Hittinger, G., Chadapaud, S. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Parvovirus B19-related anemia in an HIV-infected patient: rapid control after production of neutralizing antibodies during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Arribas, J.R., Peña, J.M., Echevarría, J.E. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Persistent brain abnormalities in antiretroviral-naive HIV patients 3 months after HAART. Chang, L., Ernst, T., Witt, M.D., Ames, N., Walot, I., Jovicich, J., DeSilva, M., Trivedi, N., Speck, O., Miller, E.N. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. CD4 cell recovery during successful antiretroviral therapy in naive HIV-infected patients: the role of intravenous drug use. Dronda, F., Zamora, J., Moreno, S., Moreno, A., Casado, J.L., Muriel, A., Pérez-Elías, M.J., Antela, A., Moreno, L., Quereda, C. AIDS (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Changes in monocyte/macrophage neurotoxicity in the era of HAART: implications for HIV-associated dementia. Kusdra, L., McGuire, D., Pulliam, L. AIDS (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Alcohol consumption and HIV disease progression: are they related? Samet, J.H., Horton, N.J., Traphagen, E.T., Lyon, S.M., Freedberg, K.A. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Parvovirus B19 encephalitis presenting as immune restoration disease after highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Nolan, R.C., Chidlow, G., French, M.A. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of interleukin-2 on the pool of latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Chun, T.W., Engel, D., Mizell, S.B., Hallahan, C.W., Fischette, M., Park, S., Davey, R.T., Dybul, M., Kovacs, J.A., Metcalf, J.A., Mican, J.M., Berrey, M.M., Corey, L., Lane, H.C., Fauci, A.S. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Changes in thymic function with age and during the treatment of HIV infection. Douek, D.C., McFarland, R.D., Keiser, P.H., Gage, E.A., Massey, J.M., Haynes, B.F., Polis, M.A., Haase, A.T., Feinberg, M.B., Sullivan, J.L., Jamieson, B.D., Zack, J.A., Picker, L.J., Koup, R.A. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Measuring recent thymic emigrants in blood of normal and HIV-1-infected individuals before and after effective therapy. Zhang, L., Lewin, S.R., Markowitz, M., Lin, H.H., Skulsky, E., Karanicolas, R., He, Y., Jin, X., Tuttleton, S., Vesanen, M., Spiegel, H., Kost, R., van Lunzen, J., Stellbrink, H.J., Wolinsky, S., Borkowsky, W., Palumbo, P., Kostrikis, L.G., Ho, D.D. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. IL-7 is a potent and proviral strain-specific inducer of latent HIV-1 cellular reservoirs of infected individuals on virally suppressive HAART. Wang, F.X., Xu, Y., Sullivan, J., Souder, E., Argyris, E.G., Acheampong, E.A., Fisher, J., Sierra, M., Thomson, M.M., Najera, R., Frank, I., Kulkosky, J., Pomerantz, R.J., Nunnari, G. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Impaired glucose phosphorylation and transport in skeletal muscle cause insulin resistance in HIV-1-infected patients with lipodystrophy. Behrens, G.M., Boerner, A.R., Weber, K., van den Hoff, J., Ockenga, J., Brabant, G., Schmidt, R.E. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Haematological changes in adults receiving a zidovudine-containing HAART regimen in combination with cotrimoxazole in Côte d'Ivoire. Moh, R., Danel, C., Sorho, S., Sauvageot, D., Anzian, A., Minga, A., Gomis, O.B., Konga, C., Inwoley, A., Gabillard, D., Bissagnene, E., Salamon, R., Anglaret, X. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Increased incidence of indinavir nephrolithiasis in patients with hepatitis B or C virus infection. Malavaud, B., Dinh, B., Bonnet, E., Izopet, J., Payen, J.L., Marchou, B. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Drug resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected subjects during protease inhibitor-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy with nelfinavir or indinavir. Yerly, S., Rickenbach, M., Popescu, M., Taffe, P., Craig, C., Perrin, L. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Improvement in dyslipidaemia after switching stavudine to tenofovir and replacing protease inhibitors with efavirenz in HIV-infected children. Viganò, A., Aldrovandi, G.M., Giacomet, V., Merlo, M., Martelli, L., Beretta, S., Luraschi, P., Rombolà, G., Mora, S. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Lipid profiles for antiretroviral-naive patients starting PI- and NNRTI-based therapy in the Swiss HIV cohort study. Young, J., Weber, R., Rickenbach, M., Furrer, H., Bernasconi, E., Hirschel, B., Tarr, P.E., Vernazza, P., Battegay, M., Bucher, H.C. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Antiretroviral treatment alters relationship between MCP-1 and neurometabolites in HIV patients. Chang, L., Ernst, T., St Hillaire, C., Conant, K. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Mitochondrial proliferation, DNA depletion and adipocyte differentiation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of HIV-positive HAART recipients. Pace, C.S., Martin, A.M., Hammond, E.L., Mamotte, C.D., Nolan, D.A., Mallal, S.A. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. AIDS-related B-cell lymphoma (ARL): correlation of prognosis with differentiation profiles assessed by immunophenotyping. Hoffmann, C., Tiemann, M., Schrader, C., Janssen, D., Wolf, E., Vierbuchen, M., Parwaresch, R., Ernestus, K., Plettenberg, A., Stoehr, A., Fatkenheuer, G., Wyen, C., Oette, M., Horst, H.A. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. In vitro suppression of the lipogenic pathway by the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz in 3T3 and human preadipocytes or adipocytes. Hadri, K.E., Glorian, M., Monsempes, C., Dieudonné, M.N., Pecquery, R., Giudicelli, Y., Andreani, M., Dugail, I., Fève, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. HIV-1 and T cell dynamics after interruption of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with a history of sustained viral suppression. Davey, R.T., Bhat, N., Yoder, C., Chun, T.W., Metcalf, J.A., Dewar, R., Natarajan, V., Lempicki, R.A., Adelsberger, J.W., Miller, K.D., Kovacs, J.A., Polis, M.A., Walker, R.E., Falloon, J., Masur, H., Gee, D., Baseler, M., Dimitrov, D.S., Fauci, A.S., Lane, H.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Increased mitochondrial DNA content in peripheral blood lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy. Cossarizza, A., Riva, A., Pinti, M., Ammannato, S., Fedeli, P., Mussini, C., Esposito, R., Galli, M. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Altered mitochondrial RNA production in adipocytes from HIV-infected individuals with lipodystrophy. Galluzzi, L., Pinti, M., Guaraldi, G., Mussini, C., Troiano, L., Roat, E., Giovenzana, C., Nemes, E., Nasi, M., Orlando, G., Salomoni, P., Cossarizza, A. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Generation of CD3+CD8low thymocytes in the HIV type 1-infected thymus. Keir, M.E., Rosenberg, M.G., Sandberg, J.K., Jordan, K.A., Wiznia, A., Nixon, D.F., Stoddart, C.A., McCune, J.M. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Defective dendritic cell function in HIV-infected patients receiving effective highly active antiretroviral therapy: neutralization of IL-10 production and depletion of CD4+CD25+ T cells restore high levels of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses induced by dendritic cells generated in the presence of IFN-alpha. Carbonneil, C., Donkova-Petrini, V., Aouba, A., Weiss, L. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Indinavir concentrations in hair from patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Bernard, L., Peytavin, G., Vuagnat, A., de Truchis, P., Perronne, C. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Fat distribution and metabolic abnormalities in HIV-infected patients on first combination antiretroviral therapy including stavudine or zidovudine: role of physical activity as a protective factor. Domingo, P., Sambeat, M.A., Pérez, A., Ordoñez, J., Rodriguez, J., Vázquez, G. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. A once-daily HAART regimen containing indinavir + ritonavir plus one or two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (PIPO study). Burger, D.M., Aarnoutse, R.E., Dieleman, J.P., Gyssens, I.C., Nouwen, J., de Marie, S., Koopmans, P.P., Stek, M., van der Ende, M.E. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Using a database of HIV patients undergoing genotypic resistance test after HAART failure to understand the dynamics of M184V mutation. Zaccarelli, M., Perno, C.F., Forbici, F., Cingolani, A., Liuzzi, G., Bertoli, A., Trotta, M.P., Bellocchi, M.C., Di Giambenedetto, S., Tozzi, V., Gori, C., D'Arrigo, R., De Longis, P., Noto, P., Girardi, E., De Luca, A., Antinori, A. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Gynaecomastia in HIV-infected men on highly active antiretroviral therapy: association with efavirenz and didanosine treatment. Mira, J.A., Lozano, F., Santos, J., Ramayo, E., Terrón, A., Palacios, R., León, E.M., Márquez, M., Macías, J., Fernández-Palacin, A., Gómez-Mateos, J., Pineda, J.A. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Involvement of Bcl-2 and IL-2R in HIV-positive patients whose CD4 cell counts fail to increase rapidly with highly active antiretroviral therapy. David, D., Keller, H., Naït-Ighil, L., Treilhou, M.P., Joussemet, M., Dupont, B., Gachot, B., Maral, J., Thèze, J. AIDS (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Changes in host cell molecules acquired by circulating HIV-1 in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and interleukin-2. Abbate, I., Dianzani, F., Turriziani, O., Antonelli, G., D'Offizi, G., Galati, V., Pierdominici, M., Pandolfi, F., Capobianchi, M.R. AIDS (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Persistent alterations in T-cell repertoire, cytokine and chemokine receptor gene expression after 1 year of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Martinon, F., Michelet, C., Peguillet, I., Taoufik, Y., Lefebvre, P., Goujard, C., Guillet, J.G., Delfraissy, J.F., Lantz, O. AIDS (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. In vivo analysis of Fas/FasL interactions in HIV-infected patients. Badley, A.D., Dockrell, D.H., Algeciras, A., Ziesmer, S., Landay, A., Lederman, M.M., Connick, E., Kessler, H., Kuritzkes, D., Lynch, D.H., Roche, P., Yagita, H., Paya, C.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Increase of HIV-1 pro-viral DNA per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with advanced HIV disease (CD4<200 cells/mm3) receiving interleukin 2 combined with HAART versus HAART alone (ANRS-082 trial). Delaugerre, C., Gourlain, K., Tubiana, R., Carcelain, G., Marcelin, A.G., Chouquet, C., Mouroux, M., Duvivier, C., Autran, B., Costagliola, D., Katlama, C., Calvez, V. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Reconstitution of naive T cells during antiretroviral treatment of HIV-infected adults is dependent on age. Cohen Stuart, J., Hamann, D., Borleffs, J., Roos, M., Miedema, F., Boucher, C., de Boer, R. AIDS (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Lack of control of T cell apoptosis under HAART. Influence of therapy regimen in vivo and in vitro. de Oliveira Pinto, L.M., Lecoeur, H., Ledru, E., Rapp, C., Patey, O., Gougeon, M.L. AIDS (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Treatment of AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Miralles, P., Berenguer, J., García de Viedma, D., Padilla, B., Cosin, J., López-Bernaldo de Quirós, J.C., Muñoz, L., Moreno, S., Bouza, E. AIDS (1998) [Pubmed]
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