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Gene Review

STLV1gp4  -  tax protein

Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1

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Disease relevance of STLV1gp4


High impact information on STLV1gp4

  • We also show that the fraction of Tax protein that localizes to centrosomes interacts with TAX1BP2, a novel centrosomal protein composed almost entirely of coiled-coil domains [6].
  • Our purpose was to determine whether the mechanism by which Tax protein induces transformation in HTLV- or BLV-infected cells involves DNA damage [7].
  • The Tax protein of HTLV-1 induces these same kappa B-specific proteins, but in contrast to immune stimulation, HTLV-1 infection of T cells leads to constitutive IL-2R alpha gene expression and immortalization [8].
  • These observations indicate that Tax protein binds to CREB and CRE modulator and the complexes then bind to the 21-bp enhancer, suggesting that the complex binding to the enhancer mediates trans-activation of transcription [9].
  • Although Tax protein is the main target of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) on human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected cells, and Tax peptide 11 through 19 binding to HLA-A*02 has been shown to elicit a strong CTL response, there are patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) bearing HLA-A*02 [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of STLV1gp4


Biological context of STLV1gp4


Anatomical context of STLV1gp4

  • The cells phenotypically resemble HTLV-immortalized lymphocytes and contain episomally persisting recombinant rhadinoviral sequences, which stably express functional Tax protein [19].
  • When introduced into tax-transformed fibroblasts ex vivo, only the uniformly modified anti-tax phosphoramidate oligodeoxynucleotide caused a sequence-dependent reduction in the Tax protein level [11].
  • Imbalanced expression of glutamate-glutamine cycle enzymes induced by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax protein in cultivated astrocytes [20].
  • The expressed Tax protein is localized in the nucleus and associated with the yeast nuclear matrix fraction [21].

Associations of STLV1gp4 with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of STLV1gp4

  • To investigate the diagnostic implications of virion-associated Tax protein, sera from HTLV-I-infected individuals were compared on HUT-102 and MT-2 virus Western blots [26].
  • We also performed histopathological examination as well as immunohistochemistry of HTLV-I-derived Tax protein in eight synovial tissues taken from carrier patients [27].


  1. Control of cAMP-regulated enhancers by the viral transactivator Tax through CREB and the co-activator CBP. Kwok, R.P., Laurance, M.E., Lundblad, J.R., Goldman, P.S., Shih, H., Connor, L.M., Marriott, S.J., Goodman, R.H. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Transactivation of the interleukin-1alpha promoter by human T-cell leukemia virus type I and type II Tax proteins. Mori, N., Prager, D. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential transcriptional activation by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax mutants is mediated by distinct interactions with CREB binding protein and p300. Bex, F., Yin, M.J., Burny, A., Gaynor, R.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Transcription factor binding and histone modifications on the integrated proviral promoter in human T-cell leukemia virus-I-infected T-cells. Lemasson, I., Polakowski, N.J., Laybourn, P.J., Nyborg, J.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcriptional activation of JC virus by human T-lymphotropic virus type I Tax protein in human neuronal cell lines. Okada, Y., Sawa, H., Tanaka, S., Takada, A., Suzuki, S., Hasegawa, H., Umemura, T., Fujisawa, J., Tanaka, Y., Hall, W.W., Nagashima, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The retroviral oncoprotein Tax targets the coiled-coil centrosomal protein TAX1BP2 to induce centrosome overduplication. Ching, Y.P., Chan, S.F., Jeang, K.T., Jin, D.Y. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Defective DNA repair in cells with human T-cell leukemia/bovine leukemia viruses: role of tax gene. Philpott, S.M., Buehring, G.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. HIV-1, HTLV-1 and normal T-cell growth: transcriptional strategies and surprises. Greene, W.C., Böhnlein, E., Ballard, D.W. Immunol. Today (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. The trans-activator tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) interacts with cAMP-responsive element (CRE) binding and CRE modulator proteins that bind to the 21-base-pair enhancer of HTLV-1. Suzuki, T., Fujisawa, J.I., Toita, M., Yoshida, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Existence of escape mutant in HTLV-I tax during the development of adult T-cell leukemia. Furukawa, Y., Kubota, R., Tara, M., Izumo, S., Osame, M. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. RNase H-independent antisense activity of oligonucleotide N3 '--> P5 ' phosphoramidates. Heidenreich, O., Gryaznov, S., Nerenberg, M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. In vitro induction of HIV-1 replication in resting CD4(+) T cells derived from individuals with undetectable plasma viremia upon stimulation with human T-cell leukemia virus type I. Moriuchi, H., Moriuchi, M. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Protective efficacy of multiepitope human leukocyte antigen-A*0201 restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte peptide construct against challenge with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax recombinant vaccinia virus. Sundaram, R., Lynch, M.P., Rawale, S., Dakappagari, N., Young, D., Walker, C.M., Lemonnier, F., Jacobson, S., Kaumaya, P.T. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Transactivation of the human interleukin-6 gene by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax protein. Yamashita, I., Katamine, S., Moriuchi, R., Nakamura, Y., Miyamoto, T., Eguchi, K., Nagataki, S. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Ribozyme-based gene cleavage approach to chronic arthritis associated with human T cell leukemia virus type I: induction of apoptosis in synoviocytes by ablation of HTLV-I tax protein. Kitajima, I., Hanyu, N., Kawahara, K., Soejima, Y., Kubo, T., Yamada, R., Kaneda, Y., Maruyama, I. Arthritis Rheum. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. The tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 mediates the transactivation of the c-sis/platelet-derived growth factor-B promoter through interactions with the zinc finger transcription factors Sp1 and NGFI-A/Egr-1. Trejo, S.R., Fahl, W.E., Ratner, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. IL-2- and STAT5-regulated cytokine gene expression in cells expressing the Tax protein of HTLV-1. Fung, M.M., Chu, Y.L., Fink, J.L., Wallace, A., McGuire, K.L. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Overproduction of NFKB2 (lyt-10) and c-Rel: a mechanism for HTLV-I Tax-mediated trans-activation via the NF-kappa B signalling pathway. Lanoix, J., Lacoste, J., Pepin, N., Rice, N., Hiscott, J. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. A human T-cell leukemia virus Tax variant incapable of activating NF-kappaB retains its immortalizing potential for primary T-lymphocytes. Rosin, O., Koch, C., Schmitt, I., Semmes, O.J., Jeang, K.T., Grassmann, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Imbalanced expression of glutamate-glutamine cycle enzymes induced by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax protein in cultivated astrocytes. Akaoka, H., Hardin-Pouzet, H., Bernard, A., Verrier, B., Belin, M.F., Giraudon, P. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression and characterization of the trans-activating protein Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wu, L.C., Tan, T.H., Shahied, S.I. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. c-sis/PDGF-B promoter transactivation by the Yax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Trejo, S.R., Fahl, W.E., Ratner, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I tax transformation is associated with increased uptake of oligodeoxynucleotides in vitro and in vivo. Kitajima, I., Shinohara, T., Minor, T., Bibbs, L., Bilakovics, J., Nerenberg, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Presentation of a new H-2D(k)-restricted epitope in the Tax protein of human T-lymphotropic virus type I is enhanced by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. Lomas, M., Hanon, E., Tanaka, Y., Bangham, C.R., Gould, K.G. J. Gen. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-transformed T-cells have a partial defect in ceramide synthesis in response to N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide. Darwiche, N., Abou-Lteif, G., Najdi, T., Kozhaya, L., Abou Tayyoun, A., Bazarbachi, A., Dbaibo, G.S. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Virion-associated trans-regulatory protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type I. Lillehoj, E.P., Alexander, S.S. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Altered expression of inflammatory cytokines in primary osteoarthritis by human T lymphotropic virus type I retrovirus infection: a cross-sectional study. Yoshihara, Y., Tsukazaki, T., Osaki, M., Nakashima, M., Hasui, K., Shindo, H. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
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