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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Synergistic induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells (U937) exposed to bryostatin 1 and the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin involves dysregulation of the PKC/ MAPK cascade.

Cotreatment with a minimally toxic concentration of the protein kinase C (PKC) activator (and down-regulator) bryostatin 1 (BRY) induced a marked increase in mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in U937 monocytic leukemia cells exposed to the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin (LC). This effect was blocked by cycloheximide, but not by alpha-amanitin or actinomycin D. Qualitatively similar interactions were observed with other PKC activators (eg, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and mezerein), but not phospholipase C, which does not down-regulate the enzyme. These events were examined in relationship to functional alterations in stress (eg, SAPK, JNK) and survival (eg, MAPK, ERK) signaling pathways. The observations that LC/BRY treatment failed to trigger JNK activation and that cell death was unaffected by a dominant-interfering form of c-JUN (TAM67) or by pretreatment with either curcumin or the p38/RK inhibitor, SB203580, suggested that the SAPK pathway was not involved in potentiation of apoptosis. In marked contrast, perturbations in the PKC/Raf/ MAPK pathway played an integral role in LC/BRY-mediated cell death based on evidence that pretreatment of cells with bisindolylmaleimide I, a selective PKC inhibitor, or geldanamycin, a benzoquinone ansamycin, which destabilizes and depletes Raf-1, markedly suppressed apoptosis. Furthermore, ERK phosphorylation was substantially prolonged in LC/BRY-treated cells compared to those exposed to BRY alone, and pretreatment with the highly specific MEK inhibitors, PD98059, U0126, and SL327, opposed ERK activation while protecting cells from LC/BRY-induced lethality. Together, these findings suggest a role for activation and/or dysregulation of the PKC/ MAPK cascade in modulation of leukemic cell apoptosis following exposure to the proteasome inhibitor LC. (Blood. 2001;97:2105-2114)[1]


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