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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Presence of estrogen receptors in human myeloid monocytic cells (THP-1 cell line).

OBJECTIVE: To test THP-1 cells for the presence of estrogen receptors ( ER) since studies have demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, the influence of estrogens on cells involved in immune response (i.e. macrophages), and since it has been demonstrated that human myeloid monocytic THP-1 cells acquire phenotypic and functional macrophage-like features after incubation with several cytokines or pharmacological agents. DESIGN: Stimulation of THP-1 cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to prompt their differentiation into macrophage-like cells and evaluation of the possible induction of ER. METHODS: The expression of ER was analyzed by immunocytochemical assay, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: After stimulation by PMA, the human myeloid monocytic THP-1 cells showed the presence of ER, together with markers of monocytic cell differentiation such as CD68, CD54 and HLA-DR. CONCLUSION: Estrogen effects may be exerted directly through ER on monocytes/macrophages. PMA-treated THP-1 cells may constitute a useful in vitro model to determine the effects of estrogens on macrophage-like cells and their implications in the inflammatory and immune processes.[1]


  1. Presence of estrogen receptors in human myeloid monocytic cells (THP-1 cell line). Cutolo, M., Villaggio, B., Bisso, A., Sulli, A., Coviello, D., Dayer, J.M. Eur. Cytokine Netw. (2001) [Pubmed]
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