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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

TRAIL/Apo2L ligand selectively induces apoptosis and overcomes drug resistance in multiple myeloma: therapeutic applications.

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and novel treatments are urgently needed. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo evaluations were performed to assess the potential therapeutic applications of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo2 ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) in MM. TRAIL/Apo2L potently induced apoptosis of MM cells from patients and the majority of MM cell lines, including cells sensitive or resistant to dexamethasone (Dex), doxorubicin (Dox), melphalan, and mitoxantrone. TRAIL/Apo2L also overcame the survival effect of interleukin 6 on MM cells and did not affect the survival of peripheral blood and bone marrow mononuclear cells and purified B cells from healthy donors. The status of the TRAIL receptors (assessed by immunoblotting and flow cytometry) could not predict TRAIL sensitivity of MM cells. The anti-MM activity of TRAIL/Apo2L was confirmed in nu/xid/bg mice xenografted with human MM cells; TRAIL (500 microg intraperitoneally daily for 14 days) was well tolerated and significantly suppressed the growth of plasmacytomas. Dox up-regulated the expression of the TRAIL receptor death receptor 5 ( DR5) and synergistically enhanced the effect of TRAIL not only against MM cells sensitive to, but also against those resistant to, Dex- or Dox-induced apoptosis. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB inhibitors, such as SN50 (a cell-permeable inhibitor of the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB) or the proteasome inhibitor PS-341, enhanced the proapoptotic activity of TRAIL/Apo2L against TRAIL-sensitive MM cells, whereas SN50 reversed the TRAIL resistance of ARH-77 and IM-9 MM cells. Importantly, normal B lymphocytes were not sensitized to TRAIL by either Dox, SN50, or PS-341. These preclinical studies suggest that TRAIL/Apo2L can overcome conventional drug resistance and provide the basis for clinical trials of TRAIL-based treatment regimens to improve outcome in patients with MM. (Blood. 2001;98:795-804)[1]


  1. TRAIL/Apo2L ligand selectively induces apoptosis and overcomes drug resistance in multiple myeloma: therapeutic applications. Mitsiades, C.S., Treon, S.P., Mitsiades, N., Shima, Y., Richardson, P., Schlossman, R., Hideshima, T., Anderson, K.C. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
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