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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role for endothelin-1-induced superoxide and peroxynitrite production in rebound pulmonary hypertension associated with inhaled nitric oxide therapy.

Our previous studies have demonstrated that inhaled nitric oxide (NO) decreases nitric oxide synthase ( NOS) activity in vivo and that this inhibition is associated with rebound pulmonary hypertension upon acute withdrawal of inhaled NO. We have also demonstrated that inhaled NO elevates plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and that pretreatment with PD156707, an ETA receptor antagonist, blocks the rebound hypertension. The objectives of this study were to further elucidate the role of ET-1 in the rebound pulmonary hypertension upon acute withdrawal of inhaled NO. Inhaled NO (40 ppm) delivered to thirteen 4-week-old lambs decreased NOS activity by 36.2% in control lambs (P<0.05), whereas NOS activity was preserved in PD156707-treated lambs. When primary cultures of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells were exposed to ET-1, superoxide production increased by 33% (P<0.05). This increase was blocked by a preincubation with PD156707. Furthermore, cotreatment of cells with ET-1 and NO increased peroxynitrite levels by 26% (P<0.05), whereas preincubation of purified human endothelial nitric oxide synthase ( eNOS) protein with peroxynitrite generated a nitrated enzyme with 50% activity relative to control (P<0.05). Western blot analysis of peripheral lung extracts obtained after 24 hours of inhaled NO revealed a 90% reduction in 3-nitrotyrosine residues (P<0.05) in PD156707-treated lambs. The nitration of eNOS was also reduced by 40% in PD156707-treated lambs (P<0.05). These data suggest that the reduction of NOS activity associated with inhaled NO therapy may involve ETA receptor-mediated superoxide production. ETA receptor antagonists may prevent rebound pulmonary hypertension by protecting endogenous eNOS activity during inhaled NO therapy.[1]


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