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Seville (sour) orange juice: synephrine content and cardiovascular effects in normotensive adults.

The Seville orange extract Citrus aurantium contains m-synephrine (phenylephrine) and octopamine; it causes cardiac disturbances in animals and is used by humans for weight loss. Juice from the orange (Seville orange juice [SOJ]) is used to "knock out" intestinal cytochrome P450 ( CYP) 3A4 in bioavailability studies. The purpose of this study was to determine synephrine and octopamine concentrations in SOJ and SOJ's cardiovascular effects in normotensive humans. Subjects consumed 8 ounces of SOJ and water in crossover fashion followed by a repeat ingestion 8 hours later. Hemodynamic (heart rate; systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure) measurements followed. Synephrine and octopamine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hemodynamics did not differ significantly between water and SOJ groups. Mean synephrine concentration of SOJ samples was 56.9 +/- 0.52 microg/ml; octopamine was not detected. SOJ ingestion by normotensive subjects is expected to be safe. Individuals with severe hypertension, tachyarrhythmias, and narrow-angle glaucoma and monoamine oxidase inhibitor recipients should avoid SOJ consumption. Persons taking decongestant-containing cold preparations should also refrain from SOJ intake.[1]


  1. Seville (sour) orange juice: synephrine content and cardiovascular effects in normotensive adults. Penzak, S.R., Jann, M.W., Cold, J.A., Hon, Y.Y., Desai, H.D., Gurley, B.J. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2001) [Pubmed]
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