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MeSH Review

Weight Loss

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Disease relevance of Weight Loss


Psychiatry related information on Weight Loss


High impact information on Weight Loss

  • The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommends a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet, with weight loss if indicated, to correct elevated plasma cholesterol levels [11].
  • After weight loss, the level of heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity increased in all patients, from 3.8 +/- 1.1 to 7.1 +/- 1.6 neq of free fatty acid released per minute per 10(6) cells (P less than 0.05) [12].
  • The effects of weight loss on the activity and expression of adipose-tissue lipoprotein lipase in very obese humans [12].
  • At the end of the follow-up period, the patients in the weight-reduction group had lost an average of 8.3 kg, and their blood pressure had decreased by an average of 14/13 mm Hg, as compared with 12/8 mm Hg in the metoprolol group and 9/4 mm Hg in the placebo group [13].
  • The changes in thickness of the interventricular septum and the left ventricular mass in the weight-reduction group were also greater than those in the metoprolol group [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Weight Loss

  • In the weight-loss group, the number of women who had luteal abnormalities as compared with those who lost the surge in luteinizing hormone altered significantly over time, the latter occurring more frequently (P less than 0.01) as training progressed [14].
  • In all four subjects studied before correction of weight loss, the response to hypertonic saline was abnormal: in one, the plasma level of arginine vasopressin increased subnormally relative to the plasma sodium level; in the other three, it fluctuated erratically, with no relation to plasma sodium [15].
  • The reduction in PRA but not in aldosterone correlated with weight loss in both sodium-intake groups (r = 0.58) [16].
  • To explore this possibility, we examined the response of plasma vasopressin to intravenous hypertonic saline in anorexic patients before and after correction of their weight loss [15].
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces weight loss and improves glucose tolerance in humans and rodents [17].
  • These observations demonstrate that GHS-R1a antagonists have the potential to improve the diabetic condition by promoting glucose-dependent insulin secretion and promoting weight loss [18].

Biological context of Weight Loss


Anatomical context of Weight Loss


Gene context of Weight Loss

  • In contrast, the PRL responses of patients with weight loss exceeding 10 lb were significantly greater than those of either controls or the other depressed patients [28].
  • Cytokines, including interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6, are often produced in response to tissue injury and contribute to several host responses such as weight loss, anorexia, and acute-phase protein synthesis [29].
  • These findings suggest that IL-1 orchestrates weight loss and body compositional changes during inflammation and contributes to the induction of interleukin 6 and acute-phase protein synthesis [29].
  • In these trials, CNTF caused unexpected and substantial weight loss, raising concerns that it might produce cachectic-like effects [30].
  • In contrast, CNTFAx15 treatment of db/db mice caused significantly greater weight loss and marked improvements in diabetic parameters (e.g., levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, and nonesterified free fatty acids) than could be accounted for by reduced caloric intake alone [31].
  • There was a significant interaction between PCOS status and CRP (P = 0.016) such that CRP decreased with weight loss for non-PCOS women (-1.2 +/- 1.8 mg/liter; P = 0.025) but not for PCOS women [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Weight Loss



  1. Impaired growth hormone responses to growth hormone-releasing factor in obesity. A pituitary defect reversed with weight reduction. Williams, T., Berelowitz, M., Joffe, S.N., Thorner, M.O., Rivier, J., Vale, W., Frohman, L.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of a cancer cachectic factor. Todorov, P., Cariuk, P., McDevitt, T., Coles, B., Fearon, K., Tisdale, M. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Testosterone replacement and resistance exercise in HIV-infected men with weight loss and low testosterone levels. Bhasin, S., Storer, T.W., Javanbakht, M., Berman, N., Yarasheski, K.E., Phillips, J., Dike, M., Sinha-Hikim, I., Shen, R., Hays, R.D., Beall, G. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Interferon gamma receptor deficient mice are resistant to endotoxic shock. Car, B.D., Eng, V.M., Schnyder, B., Ozmen, L., Huang, S., Gallay, P., Heumann, D., Aguet, M., Ryffel, B. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. A new family of potent AB(5) cytotoxins produced by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli. Paton, A.W., Srimanote, P., Talbot, U.M., Wang, H., Paton, J.C. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Pivotal role of oligomerization in expanded polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders. Sánchez, I., Mahlke, C., Yuan, J. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhanced fat oxidation through physical activity is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity in obesity. Goodpaster, B.H., Katsiaras, A., Kelley, D.E. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of risk factors on exercise capacity in NIDDM. Estacio, R.O., Wolfel, E.E., Regensteiner, J.G., Jeffers, B., Havranek, E.P., Savage, S., Schrier, R.W. Diabetes (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, modulates AMP-activated protein kinase to alter neuronal energy metabolism. Landree, L.E., Hanlon, A.L., Strong, D.W., Rumbaugh, G., Miller, I.M., Thupari, J.N., Connolly, E.C., Huganir, R.L., Richardson, C., Witters, L.A., Kuhajda, F.P., Ronnett, G.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Delayed pituitary hormone response to LRF and TRF in patients with anorexia nervosa and with secondary amenorrhea associated with simple weight loss. Vigersky, R.A., Loriaux, D.L., Andersen, A.E., Mecklenburg, R.S., Vaitukaitis, J.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet, with or without exercise, in overweight men and women. Wood, P.D., Stefanick, M.L., Williams, P.T., Haskell, W.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. The effects of weight loss on the activity and expression of adipose-tissue lipoprotein lipase in very obese humans. Kern, P.A., Ong, J.M., Saffari, B., Carty, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of weight reduction on left ventricular mass. A randomized controlled trial in young, overweight hypertensive patients. MacMahon, S.W., Wilcken, D.E., Macdonald, G.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Induction of menstrual disorders by strenuous exercise in untrained women. Bullen, B.A., Skrinar, G.S., Beitins, I.Z., von Mering, G., Turnbull, B.A., McArthur, J.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Abnormalities in plasma and cerebrospinal-fluid arginine vasopressin in patients with anorexia nervosa. Gold, P.W., Kaye, W., Robertson, G.L., Ebert, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of weight reduction on blood pressure, plasma renin activity, and plasma aldosterone levels in obese patients. Tuck, M.L., Sowers, J., Dornfeld, L., Kledzik, G., Maxwell, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. CNTF reverses obesity-induced insulin resistance by activating skeletal muscle AMPK. Watt, M.J., Dzamko, N., Thomas, W.G., Rose-John, S., Ernst, M., Carling, D., Kemp, B.E., Febbraio, M.A., Steinberg, G.R. Nat. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Small-molecule ghrelin receptor antagonists improve glucose tolerance, suppress appetite, and promote weight loss. Esler, W.P., Rudolph, J., Claus, T.H., Tang, W., Barucci, N., Brown, S.E., Bullock, W., Daly, M., Decarr, L., Li, Y., Milardo, L., Molstad, D., Zhu, J., Gardell, S.J., Livingston, J.N., Sweet, L.J. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Prevention and control of hypertension by nutritional-hygienic means. Long-term experience of the Chicago Coronary Prevention Evaluation Program. Stamler, J., Farinaro, E., Mojonnier, L.M., Hall, Y., Moss, D., Stamler, R. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Specifically decreased collagen biosynthesis in scurvy dissociated from an effect on proline hydroxylation and correlated with body weight loss. In vitro studies in guinea pig calvarial bones. Chojkier, M., Spanheimer, R., Peterkofsky, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. The type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase is essential for adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. de Jesus, L.A., Carvalho, S.D., Ribeiro, M.O., Schneider, M., Kim, S.W., Harney, J.W., Larsen, P.R., Bianco, A.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Thermic effect of infused glucose and insulin in man. Decreased response with increased insulin resistance in obesity and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ravussin, E., Bogardus, C., Schwartz, R.S., Robbins, D.C., Wolfe, R.R., Horton, E.S., Danforth, E., Sims, E.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Renal response to captopril in severe heart failure: role of furosemide in natriuresis and reversal of hyponatremia. Dzau, V.J., Hollenberg, N.K. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Adiponectin: Identification, physiology and clinical relevance in metabolic and vascular disease. Matsuzawa, Y. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of leukotriene B4-receptor interaction suppresses eosinophil infiltration and disease pathology in a murine model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Gladue, R.P., Carroll, L.A., Milici, A.J., Scampoli, D.N., Stukenbrok, H.A., Pettipher, E.R., Salter, E.D., Contillo, L., Showell, H.J. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. A critical role for OX40 in T cell-mediated immunopathology during lung viral infection. Humphreys, I.R., Walzl, G., Edwards, L., Rae, A., Hill, S., Hussell, T. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Restoration of insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle of morbidly obese patients after weight loss. Effect on muscle glucose transport and glucose transporter GLUT4. Friedman, J.E., Dohm, G.L., Leggett-Frazier, N., Elton, C.W., Tapscott, E.B., Pories, W.P., Caro, J.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Neuroendocrine responses to intravenous tryptophan in major depression. Cowen, P.J., Charig, E.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Interleukin 1 receptor blockade attenuates the host inflammatory response. Gershenwald, J.E., Fong, Y.M., Fahey, T.J., Calvano, S.E., Chizzonite, R., Kilian, P.L., Lowry, S.F., Moldawer, L.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates leptin-like pathways and reduces body fat, without cachexia or rebound weight gain, even in leptin-resistant obesity. Lambert, P.D., Anderson, K.D., Sleeman, M.W., Wong, V., Tan, J., Hijarunguru, A., Corcoran, T.L., Murray, J.D., Thabet, K.E., Yancopoulos, G.D., Wiegand, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Ciliary neurotrophic factor improves diabetic parameters and hepatic steatosis and increases basal metabolic rate in db/db mice. Sleeman, M.W., Garcia, K., Liu, R., Murray, J.D., Malinova, L., Moncrieffe, M., Yancopoulos, G.D., Wiegand, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. C-reactive protein before and after weight loss in overweight women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Moran, L.J., Noakes, M., Clifton, P.M., Wittert, G.A., Belobrajdic, D.P., Norman, R.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. Shekelle, P.G., Hardy, M.L., Morton, S.C., Maglione, M., Mojica, W.A., Suttorp, M.J., Rhodes, S.L., Jungvig, L., Gagné, J. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Hyperleptinemia prevents increased plasma ghrelin concentration during short-term moderate caloric restriction in rats. Barazzoni, R., Zanetti, M., Stebel, M., Biolo, G., Cattin, L., Guarnieri, G. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Alterations of hepatic triglyceride in patients before and after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Kessler, J.I., Nirmel, K., MacLean, L.D., Shibata, H.R. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  36. Hyperlipidemia and pancreatitis during pregnancy in two sisters with a mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene. Keilson, L.M., Vary, C.P., Sprecher, D.L., Renfrew, R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
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