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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

An early growth response protein (Egr) 1 cis-element is required for gonadotropin-releasing hormone- induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 2 gene expression.

In pituitary gonadotropes, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) activates all three major mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK) cascades. The MAPKs play key roles in transcriptional activation of GnRH-responsive genes. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) are dual specificity protein phosphatases involved in feedback regulation of MAPK activity. Previous studies indicate that GnRH activates MKP-2 expression in gonadotropes, dependent upon activation of multiple MAPKs and discrete Ca(2+) signals. To further understand the transcriptional mechanism(s) of MKP-2 induction by GnRH, we studied the activity of a 198-nucleotide MKP-2 proximal promoter region that supports GnRH responsiveness in reporter gene assays. Functional analysis of the MKP-2 promoter confirmed a requirement for the protein kinase C-extracellular signal-regulated kinase ( ERK) pathway and VGCC-derived Ca(2+) signals in transcriptional activation of the MKP-2 gene. However, the inhibitory effect of thapsigargin on MKP-2 protein expression previously identified was not mediated at the level of promoter activation, suggesting a distinct mechanism for the action of thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) signals. MGRE (MKP-2 GnRH response element) within the MKP-2 promoter mediated promoter activation through the protein kinase C- ERK pathway. The zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 was identified in the MGRE-binding complex. Egr-1/MGRE binding was induced by GnRH in an ERK-dependent manner. Transcriptional activity of Egr-1 protein was enhanced by GnRH treatment. In addition, overexpression of the Egr-interacting protein, NAB1, resulted in increased GnRH-stimulated MKP-2 gene transcription. Consistent with the putative role of Egr-1 in MKP-2 promoter regulation, Egr-1 protein expression closely correlated with the expression of MKP-2 protein in alpha T3-1 cells. Together, these data suggest that Egr-1 may be a key factor in mediating GnRH-dependent transcriptional activation of the MKP-2 gene.[1]


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