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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Final report on the safety assessment of Stearamide DIBA-Stearate.

Stearamide DIBA-Stearate is a substituted dihydroxyisobutylamine (DIBA) that functions in cosmetic formulations as an opacifying agent, a surfactant-foam booster, and a viscosity increasing agent. Stearamide DIBA-Stearate was reportedly used in four cosmetic formulations, at concentrations of 1% to 3%. Few data on this ingredient were available. Data on related ingredients, including Dibutyl Adipate, Diisopropyl Adipate, Stearamide DEA, and Stearamide MEA, were considered in the assessment of safety. A formulation containing 1.3% Stearamide DIBA-Stearate (further diluted to 4% of the formulation) was mildly irritating but nonsensitizing in an repeated-insult patch test (RIPT). The same dilution was noncomedogenic. At a concentration of 20%, Dibutyl Adipate had an oral LD50 of 2 g/kg. Subchronic dermal exposure of rabbits (1.0 ml/kg/day) caused a reduction in weight gain that was not observed at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg/day. In studies using rabbits, undiluted Dibutyl Adipate caused mild to moderate skin irritation and minimal ocular irritation. When pregnant rats were treated intraperitoneally with approximately 1.75 ml/kg Dibutyl Adipate during gestation, the incidence of fetal gross abnormalities was increased. No effect was observed at smaller doses. Diisopropyl Adipate had low acute oral and percutaneous toxicity, and was only a very mild ocular irritant. In skin irritation studies using rabbits, 5.0% to 100% Diisopropyl Adipate caused minimal to mild irritation; these results were also seen in clinical testing with only moderate cumulative irritation, and no sensitization or photosensitization. A formulation containing 5.27% Stearamide MEA was not toxic to rats when applied topically daily for 13 weeks. In studies using rabbits, Stearamide DEA (35% to 40%) was not a skin or ocular irritant, and Stearamide MEA (5.27%) was not an ocular irritant. At 17%, Stearamide MEA was not irritating to the skin, but caused minimal to moderate irritation to the eyes of rabbits. Stearamide MEA (5.27%) did not cause sensitization during a clinical study. It was not possible, however, to determine the relevance of these data on related ingredients. Therefore, it was concluded that the available data are insufficient. Additional data needs are (1) method of manufacture; (2) chemical characterization, including impurities; (3) dermal absorption; if significantly absorbed, then a 28-day dermal toxicity study and a reproductive and developmental toxicity study may be needed; (4) two genotoxicity assays, at least one in a mammalian system; if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenesis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed; (5) ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if significant absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed. Absent these data, it was concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of Stearamide DIBA-Stearate as used in cosmetic products.[1]


  1. Final report on the safety assessment of Stearamide DIBA-Stearate. Lanigan, R.S. International journal of toxicology. (2001) [Pubmed]
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