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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Requirement for MD-1 in cell surface expression of RP105/CD180 and B-cell responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide.

RP105 is a B-cell surface molecule that has been recently assigned as CD180. RP105 ligation with an antibody induces B-cell activation in humans and mice, leading to proliferation and up-regulation of a costimulatory molecule, B7.2/CD86. RP105 is associated with an extracellular molecule, MD-1. RP105/MD-1 has structural similarity to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MD-2. TLR4 signals a membrane constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MD-2 is indispensable for TLR4-dependent LPS responses because cells expressing TLR4/MD-2, but not TLR4 alone, respond to LPS. RP105 also has a role in LPS responses because B cells lacking RP105 show hyporesponsiveness to LPS. Little is known, however, regarding whether MD-1 is important for RP105-dependent LPS responses, as MD-2 is for TLR4. To address the issue, we developed mice lacking MD-1 and generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the protein. MD-1-null mice showed impairment in LPS-induced B-cell proliferation, antibody production, and B7.2/CD86 up-regulation. These phenotypes are similar to those of RP105-null mice. The similarity was attributed to the absence of cell surface RP105 on MD-1-null B cells. MD-1 is indispensable for cell surface expression of RP105. A role for MD-1 in LPS responses was further studied with anti-mouse MD-1 mAbs. In contrast to highly mitogenic anti-RP105 mAbs, the mAbs to MD-1 were not mitogenic but antagonistic on LPS- induced B-cell proliferation and on B7.2 up-regulation. Collectively, MD-1 is important for RP105 with respect to B-cell surface expression and LPS recognition and signaling.[1]


  1. Requirement for MD-1 in cell surface expression of RP105/CD180 and B-cell responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide. Nagai, Y., Shimazu, R., Ogata, H., Akashi, S., Sudo, K., Yamasaki, H., Hayashi, S., Iwakura, Y., Kimoto, M., Miyake, K. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
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