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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characterization of lpa(2) (Edg4) and lpa(1)/lpa(2) (Edg2/Edg4) lysophosphatidic acid receptor knockout mice: signaling deficits without obvious phenotypic abnormality attributable to lpa(2).

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lipid produced by several cell types including postmitotic neurons and activated platelets, is thought to be involved in various biological processes, including brain development. Three cognate G protein- coupled receptors encoded by lpa(1)/lp(A1)/Edg-2/Gpcr26, lpa(2)/lp(A2)/Edg-4, and lpa(3)/lp(A3)/Edg-7 mediate the cellular effects of LPA. We have previously shown that deletion of lpa(1) in mice results in craniofacial dysmorphism, semilethality due to defective suckling behavior, and generation of a small fraction of pups with frontal hematoma. To further investigate the role of these receptors and LPA signaling in the organism, we deleted lpa(2) in mice. Homozygous knockout (lpa(2)((-/-))) mice were born at the expected frequency and displayed no obvious phenotypic abnormalities. Intercrosses allowed generation of lpa(1)((-/-)) lpa(2)((-/-)) double knockout mice, which displayed no additional phenotypic abnormalities relative to lpa(1)((-/-)) mice except for an increased incidence of perinatal frontal hematoma. Histological analyses of lpa(1)((-/-)) lpa(2)((-/-)) embryonic cerebral cortices did not reveal obvious differences in the proliferating cell population. However, many LPA-induced responses, including phospholipase C activation, Ca(2+) mobilization, adenylyl cyclase activation, proliferation, JNK activation, Akt activation, and stress fiber formation, were absent or severely reduced in embryonic fibroblasts derived from lpa(1)((-/-)) lpa(2)((-/-)) mice. Except for adenylyl cyclase activation [which was nearly abolished in lpa(1)((-/-)) fibroblasts], these responses were only partially affected in lpa(1)((-/-)) and lpa(2)((-/-)) fibroblasts. Thus, although LPA(2) is not essential for normal mouse development, it does act redundantly with LPA(1) to mediate most LPA responses in fibroblasts.[1]


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