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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A disorder of muscle lipid metabolism and myoglobinuria. Absence of carnitine palmityl transferase.

Two brothers, 29 and 33 years of age, had recurrent myoglobinuria, renal failure and azotemia, but were otherwise normal, without apparent muscle weakness or exercise intolerance. Ischemic exercise resulted in normal lactate production. Muscle glycogen content and activities of phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase were normal. Plasma triglycerides were elevated (500 mg per deciliter) on a regular diet and rose during fasting. During a 72-hour fast, serum creatine phosphokinase rose more than 10 times, and myoglobin was detected in urine. Plasma ketone production was minimal during fasting, but prompt ketonemia ( a normal response) occurred after ingestion of medium-chain triglycerides. Carnitine palmityl transferase activity was virtually absent in crude muscle extracts and mitochondrial fractions. Lack of this enzyme impairs long-chain fatty acid utilization, reflected in increased content of plasma free fatty acids and plasma triglycerides. Depletion of ATP because of this metabolic block in muscle may account for the attacks of myoglobinuria.[1]


  1. A disorder of muscle lipid metabolism and myoglobinuria. Absence of carnitine palmityl transferase. Bank, W.J., DiMauro, S., Bonilla, E., Capuzzi, D.M., Rowland, L.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
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