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Gene Review

MB  -  myoglobin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Myoglobin, PVALB, myoglobgin
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Disease relevance of MB

  • RESULTS: Three patients were diagnosed to have suffered from perioperative myocardial infarction on the basis of significant elevations of troponin T and creatine kinase MB-isoenzyme (CK-MB) concentrations [1].
  • In conclusion, a dissociation in the adaptive response of m. erector spinae in scoliosis between mitochondrial enzyme and myoglobin content was demonstrated [2].
  • The enzyme activities of creatine kinase (CK), its isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) and of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 (LD-1) have been used for years in diagnosing patients with chest pain in order to differentiate patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from non-AMI patients [3].
  • The present study investigated the net myocardial release of SA and the cardiac markers (cTnT, Mb, CK-MB) during reperfusion after hypothermic cardioplegic cardiac arrest in 25 patients undergoing elective CABG [4].
  • Overexpressions of myoglobin and antioxidant enzymes in ragged-red fibers of skeletal muscle from patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy [5].

Psychiatry related information on MB


High impact information on MB

  • Studies of ET reactions in ruthenium-modified proteins have probed lambda and HAB in several metalloproteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin, azurin) [11].
  • Comparison of serum enzyme activities in the remaining 374 patients confirmed that Hp 2-2 patients had significantly higher total creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB fraction, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase peak levels [12].
  • During a 72-hour fast, serum creatine phosphokinase rose more than 10 times, and myoglobin was detected in urine [13].
  • Myoglobin is a globular haem protein that reversibly binds ligands such as O2 and CO [14].
  • Comparison with the CO-bound and unligated myoglobin structures reveals that on photodissociation of the CO, the haem 'domes', the iron moves partially out of the haem plane, the iron-proximal histidine bonds is compressed, the F helix is strained and the distal histidine swings towards the outside of the ligand-binding pocket [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of MB


Biological context of MB


Anatomical context of MB


Associations of MB with chemical compounds

  • An enhancement solution dissociates Eu3+ and Sm3+ ions from the labeled CA III and Mb, respectively, into a solution where they form highly fluorescent chelates [25].
  • No significant differences between claudication and healthy leg were found in distribution of muscle fibre types or fibre dimension, capillary density or myoglobin content, nor was there any side difference in phosphofructokinase or lactate dehydrogenase [24].
  • Mean plasma/serum ratios for cTnT (0.95), creatine kinase-MB (1.01) and myoglobin (0.99) were comparable with those of the 29 common analytes (interval of means 0.83-1.05) [26].
  • Here we show that human ferrous oxy-myoglobin (oxyMb) oxidizes .NO, with a second order rate constant k = 2.8 +/- 0.1 x 10(7) M(-1).s(-1) as determined by stopped-flow spectroscopy [27].
  • Mass spectrometry of wild-type human Mb following reaction with H(2)O(2) demonstrated the formation of a homodimer (mass of 34,107 +/- 5 atomic mass units) sensitive to reducing conditions [28].

Physical interactions of MB


Enzymatic interactions of MB

  • Recent studies suggest that NO* can serve as an antioxidant of the highly oxidizing ferryl myoglobin (MbFe(IV)=O), which has been proposed to be at least in part responsible for the oxidative damage caused by the reperfusion of ischemic tissues [34].

Regulatory relationships of MB


Other interactions of MB


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MB


  1. Serum myoglobin/carbonic anhydrase III ratio in the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction during coronary bypass surgery. Vuotikka, P., Ylitalo, K., Vuori, J., Väänänen, K., Kaukoranta, P., Lepojärvi, M., Peuhkurinen, K. Scand. Cardiovasc. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Myoglobin and enzyme adaptations in erector spinae muscles in thoracal scoliosis. Jansson, E., Sylvén, C., Bylund, P. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Laboratory diagnosis of patients with acute chest pain. Penttilä, I., Penttilä, K., Rantanen, T. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Sialic acid or troponin T to detect perioperative myocardial damage in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Berkan, O., Sagban, M. Circ. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Overexpressions of myoglobin and antioxidant enzymes in ragged-red fibers of skeletal muscle from patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Kunishige, M., Mitsui, T., Akaike, M., Kawajiri, M., Shono, M., Kawai, H., Matsumoto, T. Muscle Nerve (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Myoglobin for early risk stratification of emergency department patients with possible myocardial ischemia. Green, G.B., Skarbek-Borowski, G.W., Chan, D.W., Kelen, G.D. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Performance characteristics of creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme measured with an immunoenzymometric and an immunoinhibition assay in acute myocardial infarction with and without thrombolytic therapy. Schiøler, V., Thode, J., Kjøller, E. European journal of clinical chemistry and clinical biochemistry : journal of the Forum of European Clinical Chemistry Societies. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Activity, creatine kinase, and myoglobin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a clue to etiology? Florence, J.M., Fox, P.T., Planer, G.J., Brooke, M.H. Neurology (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Fiber-optic immunosensor for measurement of myoglobin. Hanbury, C.M., Miller, W.G., Harris, R.B. Clin. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Size estimation of acute myocardial infarction from serial serum myoglobin observations with due consideration of individual differences in basic kinetics. Groth, T., Hakman, M., Sylvén, C. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Electron transfer in proteins. Gray, H.B., Winkler, J.R. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of the haptoglobin phenotype on the size of a myocardial infarct. Chapelle, J.P., Albert, A., Smeets, J.P., Heusghem, C., Kulbertus, H.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. A disorder of muscle lipid metabolism and myoglobinuria. Absence of carnitine palmityl transferase. Bank, W.J., DiMauro, S., Bonilla, E., Capuzzi, D.M., Rowland, L.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. Crystal structure of photolysed carbonmonoxy-myoglobin. Schlichting, I., Berendzen, J., Phillips, G.N., Sweet, R.M. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Serum myoglobin/carbonic anhydrase III ratio as a marker of reperfusion after myocardial infarction. Vuotikka, P., Uusimaa, P., Niemelä, M., Väänänen, K., Vuori, J., Peuhkurinen, K. International journal of cardiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased expression of the lactate dehydrogenase M subunit in myocardial regions with decreased thallium uptake. Lin, L., Kaijser, L., Liska, J., Sylvén, C., Holmgren, A., Lindström, K., Jansson, E. Cardiovasc. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacokinetics of michellamine B, a naphthylisoquinoline alkaloid with in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2, in the mouse and dog. Supko, J.G., Malspeis, L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Rhabdomyolysis and renal function impairment after isolated limb perfusion--comparison between the effects of perfusion with rhTNF alpha and a 'triple-drug' regimen. Hohenberger, P., Haier, J., Schlag, P.M. Eur. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Acute myocardial infarction in chest pain patients with nondiagnostic ECGs: serial CK-MB sampling in the emergency department. The Emergency Medicine Cardiac Research Group. Gibler, W.B., Young, G.P., Hedges, J.R., Lewis, L.M., Smith, M.S., Carleton, S.C., Aghababian, R.V., Jorden, R.O., Allison, E.J., Otten, E.J. Annals of emergency medicine. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Myoglobin content in human skeletal muscle and myocardium: relation to fibre size and oxidative capacity. Sylvén, C., Jansson, E., Böök, K. Cardiovasc. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Key enzymes of myocardial energy metabolism in patients with valvular heart disease: relation to left ventricular function. Sylvén, C., Jansson, E., Böök, K. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Myocyte nuclear factor, a novel winged-helix transcription factor under both developmental and neural regulation in striated myocytes. Bassel-Duby, R., Hernandez, M.D., Yang, Q., Rochelle, J.M., Seldin, M.F., Williams, R.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. The human myoglobin gene: a third dispersed globin locus in the human genome. Jeffreys, A.J., Wilson, V., Blanchetot, A., Weller, P., Geurts van Kessel, A., Spurr, N., Solomon, E., Goodfellow, P. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Calf muscle adaptation in intermittent claudication. Side-differences in muscle metabolic characteristics in patients with unilateral arterial disease. Jansson, E., Johansson, J., Sylvén, C., Kaijser, L. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for simultaneous detection of myoglobin and carbonic anhydrase III in serum. Vuori, J., Rasi, S., Takala, T., Väänänen, K. Clin. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Plasma or serum samples: measurements of cardiac troponin T and of other analytes compared. Dominici, R., Infusino, I., Valente, C., Moraschinelli, I., Franzini, C. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Human S-nitroso oxymyoglobin is a store of vasoactive nitric oxide. Rayner, B.S., Wu, B.J., Raftery, M., Stocker, R., Witting, P.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Reaction of human myoglobin and H2O2. Involvement of a thiyl radical produced at cysteine 110. Witting, P.K., Douglas, D.J., Mauk, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Interactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides with varied states and forms of hemoglobin. Ogo, S., Focesi, A., Cashon, R., Bonaventura, J., Bonaventura, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Specific targeting of protein-DNA complexes by DNA-reactive drugs (+)-CC-1065 and pluramycins. Henderson, D., Hurley, L.H. J. Mol. Recognit. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Utilization of myoglobin as a heme source by Haemophilus influenzae requires binding of myoglobin to haptoglobin. Morton, D.J., Van Wagoner, T.M., Seale, T.W., Whitby, P.W., Stull, T.L. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Diagnostic value of heart fatty acid binding protein and myoglobin in patients admitted with chest pain. Alansari, S.E., Croal, B.L. Ann. Clin. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Heme catabolism by the reconstituted heme oxygenase system. Kikuchi, G., Yoshida, T. Ann. Clin. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of the reactions of nitrogen monoxide and nitrite with ferryl myoglobin. Herold, S., Rehmann, F.J. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Intermediate filament expression in mesotheliomas: leiomyoid mesotheliomas are not uncommon. Mayall, F.G., Goddard, H., Gibbs, A.R. Histopathology (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Antioxidant effect of coenzyme Q on hydrogen peroxide-activated myoglobin. Mordente, A., Martorana, G.E., Santini, S.A., Miggiano, G.A., Petitti, T., Giardina, B., Battino, M., Littarru, G.P. The Clinical investigator. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Myeloperoxidase-generated phenothiazine cation radicals inactivate Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Gutiérrez-Correa, J., Stoppani, A.O. Rev. Argent. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Increase in myoglobin content and decrease in oxidative enzyme activities by leg muscle immobilization in man. Jansson, E., Sylvén, C., Arvidsson, I., Eriksson, E. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. Myoglobin, creatine kinase MB isoforms and creatine kinase MB mass in early diagnosis of myocardial infarction in patients with acute chest pain. Penttilä, K., Koukkunen, H., Halinen, M., Rantanen, T., Pyörälä, K., Punnonen, K., Penttilä, I. Clin. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. Utility of serum ratio of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein to myoglobin for cardiac damage regardless of renal dysfunction. Furuhashi, M., Ura, N., Hasegawa, K., Tsuchihashi, K., Nakata, T., Shimamoto, K. Circ. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
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