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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Myeloperoxidase functions as a major enzymatic catalyst for initiation of lipid peroxidation at sites of inflammation.

Initiation of lipid peroxidation and the formation of bioactive eicosanoids are pivotal processes in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Currently, lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are considered the primary enzymatic participants in these events. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein secreted by activated leukocytes, generates reactive intermediates that promote lipid peroxidation in vitro. For example, MPO catalyzes oxidation of tyrosine and nitrite to form tyrosyl radical and nitrogen dioxide ((.)NO(2)), respectively, reactive intermediates capable of initiating oxidation of lipids in plasma. Neither the ability of MPO to initiate lipid peroxidation in vivo nor its role in generating bioactive eicosanoids during inflammation has been reported. Using a model of inflammation (peritonitis) with MPO knockout mice (MPO(-/-)), we examined the role for MPO in the formation of bioactive lipid oxidation products and promoting oxidant stress in vivo. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to simultaneously quantify individual molecular species of hydroxy- and hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (H(P)ETEs), F(2)-isoprostanes, hydroxy- and hydroperoxy-octadecadienoic acids (H(P)ODEs), and their precursors, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. Peritonitis-triggered formation of F(2)-isoprostanes, a marker of oxidant stress in vivo, was reduced by 85% in the MPO(-/-) mice. Similarly, formation of all molecular species of H(P)ETEs and H(P)ODEs monitored were significantly reduced (by at least 50%) in the MPO(-/-) group during inflammation. Parallel analyses of peritoneal lavage proteins for protein dityrosine and nitrotyrosine, molecular markers for oxidative modification by tyrosyl radical and (.)NO(2), respectively, revealed marked reductions in the content of nitrotyrosine, but not dityrosine, in MPO(-/-) samples. Thus, MPO serves as a major enzymatic catalyst of lipid peroxidation at sites of inflammation. Moreover, MPO-dependent formation of (.)NO-derived oxidants, and not tyrosyl radical, appears to serve as a preferred pathway for initiating lipid peroxidation and promoting oxidant stress in vivo.[1]

References

  1. Myeloperoxidase functions as a major enzymatic catalyst for initiation of lipid peroxidation at sites of inflammation. Zhang, R., Brennan, M.L., Shen, Z., MacPherson, J.C., Schmitt, D., Molenda, C.E., Hazen, S.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
 
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