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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

BMS-345541 is a highly selective inhibitor of I kappa B kinase that binds at an allosteric site of the enzyme and blocks NF-kappa B-dependent transcription in mice.

The signal-inducible phosphorylation of serines 32 and 36 of I kappa B alpha is critical in regulating the subsequent ubiquitination and proteolysis of I kappa B alpha, which then releases NF-kappa B to promote gene transcription. The multisubunit I kappa B kinase responsible for this phosphorylation contains two catalytic subunits, termed I kappa B kinase (IKK)-1 and IKK-2. BMS-345541 (4(2'-aminoethyl)amino-1,8-dimethylimidazo(1,2-a)quinoxaline) was identified as a selective inhibitor of the catalytic subunits of IKK (IKK-2 IC(50) = 0.3 microm, IKK-1 IC(50) = 4 microm). The compound failed to inhibit a panel of 15 other kinases and selectively inhibited the stimulated phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha in cells (IC(50) = 4 microm) while failing to affect c-Jun and STAT3 phosphorylation, as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 activation in cells. Consistent with the role of IKK/NF-kappa B in the regulation of cytokine transcription, BMS-345541 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-8, and interleukin-6 in THP-1 cells with IC(50) values in the 1- to 5-microm range. Although a Dixon plot of the inhibition of IKK-2 by BMS-345541 showed a non-linear relationship indicating non-Michaelis-Menten kinetic binding, the use of multiple inhibition analyses indicated that BMS-345541 binds in a mutually exclusive manner with respect to a peptide inhibitor corresponding to amino acids 26-42 of I kappa B alpha with Ser-32 and Ser-36 changed to aspartates and in a non-mutually exclusive manner with respect to ADP. The opposite results were obtained when studying the binding to IKK-1. A binding model is proposed in which BMS-345541 binds to similar allosteric sites on IKK-1 and IKK-2, which then affects the active sites of the subunits differently. BMS-345541 was also shown to have excellent pharmacokinetics in mice, and peroral administration showed the compound to dose-dependently inhibit the production of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha following intraperitoneal challenge with lipopolysaccharide. Thus, the compound is effective against NF-kappa B activation in mice and represents an important tool for investigating the role of IKK in disease models.[1]


  1. BMS-345541 is a highly selective inhibitor of I kappa B kinase that binds at an allosteric site of the enzyme and blocks NF-kappa B-dependent transcription in mice. Burke, J.R., Pattoli, M.A., Gregor, K.R., Brassil, P.J., MacMaster, J.F., McIntyre, K.W., Yang, X., Iotzova, V.S., Clarke, W., Strnad, J., Qiu, Y., Zusi, F.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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