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Gene Review

Ikbkb  -  inhibitor of kappaB kinase beta

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI132552, I-kappa-B kinase 2, I-kappa-B-kinase beta, IKK-2, IKK-B, ...
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Disease relevance of Ikbkb

  • Mice with epidermis-specific deletion of IKK2 develop a severe inflammatory skin disease, which is caused by a tumour necrosis factor-mediated, alpha beta T-cell-independent inflammatory response that develops in the skin shortly after birth [1].
  • Therefore, we examined the role of IKK2 in TNF-induced apoptosis and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the liver by using conditional knockout mice [2].
  • AS602868, a novel chemical inhibitor of IKK2, protected mice from liver injury due to I/R without sensitizing them toward TNF-induced apoptosis and could therefore emerge as a new pharmacological therapy for liver resection, hemorrhagic shock, or transplantation surgery [2].
  • The IKK-2/Ikappa Balpha /NF-kappa B pathway plays a key role in the regulation of CCR3 and eotaxin-1 in fibroblasts. A critical link to dermatitis in Ikappa Balpha -deficient mice [3].
  • Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the IKKbeta/NF-kappaB/MuRF1 pathway reversed muscle atrophy [4].

High impact information on Ikbkb

  • IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), required for NF-kappaB activation, links chronic inflammation with carcinogenesis [5].
  • IKKbeta couples hepatocyte death to cytokine-driven compensatory proliferation that promotes chemical hepatocarcinogenesis [5].
  • We investigated whether IKKbeta is involved in chemically induced liver cancer, a model not involving overt inflammation [5].
  • Decreased hepatocarcinogenesis was also found in mice lacking IKKbeta in both hepatocytes and hematopoietic-derived Kupffer cells [5].
  • Surprisingly, mice lacking IKKbeta only in hepatocytes (Ikkbeta(Deltahep) mice) exhibited a marked increase in hepatocarcinogenesis caused by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ikbkb

  • More recently, IKK2 has been implicated in mediation of insulin resistance caused by obesity, lipid infusion, and TNF-alpha stimulation, since salicylate and aspirin, known inhibitors of IKK activity, can reverse insulin resistance in obese mouse models [6].
  • We have investigated the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance in muscle-specific IKK2 knockout mice and mice exhibiting a 50% reduction of IKK2 expression in every tissue and have found that, after gold thioglucose treatment, wild-type and mutant mice developed obesity to a similar extent [6].
  • To identify the molecular mechanisms of manumycin A action, cultured human HepG2 hepatoma cells were transiently transfected with various IKKalpha and IKKbeta constructs, and a striking difference in manumycin A sensitivity was observed [7].
  • An optimized compound, 2-amino-6-[2-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-6-hydroxyphenyl]-4-piperidin-4-yl nicotinonitrile, exhibited excellent in vitro profiles (IKK-beta IC(50)=8.5 nM, Cell IC(50)=60 nM) and a strong oral efficacy in in vivo anti-inflammatory assays (significant effects at 1mg/kg, po in arachidonic acid-induced ear edema model in mice) [8].

Biological context of Ikbkb

  • Our results suggest that the critical function of IKK2-mediated NF-kappa B activity in epidermal keratinocytes is to regulate mechanisms that maintain the immune homeostasis of the skin [1].
  • Mice that are devoid of the IKK2 gene had extensive liver damage from apoptosis and died as embryos, but these mice could be rescued by the inactivation of the gene encoding tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 [9].
  • While IKKalpha and IKKbeta are highly similar catalytic subunits, both capable of IkappaB phosphorylation in vitro, IKKgamma is a regulatory subunit [10].
  • Thus, IKKbeta provides a requisite role in B cell activation and maintenance and thus is a key determinant of humoral immunity [11].
  • We find that the loss of IKKbeta results in a dramatic reduction in all peripheral B cell subsets due to associated defects in cell survival [11].

Anatomical context of Ikbkb


Associations of Ikbkb with chemical compounds

  • Recently, two closely related kinases, designated IKKalpha and IKKbeta, have been identified to be the components of the IKK complex that phosphorylate critical serine residues of IkappaBs for degradation [15].
  • Furthermore, purified IKK1 and IKK2 can each phosphorylate a glutathione S-transferase-p105(758-967) fusion protein on both regulatory serines in vitro [16].
  • Insulin resistance was improved by systemic neutralization of IL-6 or salicylate inhibition of IKK-beta [17].
  • Moreover, impaired glucose tolerance resulting from a high-fat diet occurred to the same degree in control and IKK2 mutant mice [6].
  • Furthermore, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, which is normally a radioprotective agent, is radiosensitizing in IKKbeta-deficient intestinal epithelial cells [18].

Physical interactions of Ikbkb


Regulatory relationships of Ikbkb

  • Dipyridamole also inhibited LPS-stimulated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and IkappaB kinase-beta (IKK-beta) activities in RAW 264.7 cells [20].
  • The delayed restoration of IkappaBalpha in pathogen-activated IKK1-/- ELDM was a direct consequence of uncontrolled IKK2 kinase activity [21].
  • These results demonstrate the physiological importance of the NF-kappaB system in protection against radiation-induced death in the intestinal epithelium in vivo and identify IKKbeta as a key molecular target for radioprotection in the intestine [18].
  • Third, the IKKbeta-specific inhibitor SC-514 decreased the ability of Tax to inhibit p53 [22].
  • A novel IKKbeta inhibitor stimulates adiponectin levels and ameliorates obesity-linked insulin resistance [23].
  • We further show that fine-tuned inhibition of JNK activation in these cells inhibits RANKL-induced apoptosis and restores the ability of IKKbeta-null OCPs to become mature osteoclasts [24].

Other interactions of Ikbkb

  • These results show that IKK2 is essential for mouse development and cannot be substituted with IKK1 [9].
  • T cell-specific ablation of NEMO or replacement of IKK2 with a kinase-dead mutant prevent development of peripheral T cells altogether [12].
  • Whereas hepatocyte-specific deletion of IKKbeta augmented DEN-induced hepatocyte death and cytokine-driven compensatory proliferation, disruption of JNK1 abrogated this response [25].
  • To investigate the role of NF-kappaB signaling in the regulation of these genes, we stably expressed a transdominant mutant of IkappaBalpha and a constitutively active mutant of IKK-2 in mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts [3].
  • Increased apoptosis in IKKbeta-deficient intestinal epithelial cells was accompanied by increased expression and activation of the tumor suppressor p53 and decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ikbkb


  1. TNF-mediated inflammatory skin disease in mice with epidermis-specific deletion of IKK2. Pasparakis, M., Courtois, G., Hafner, M., Schmidt-Supprian, M., Nenci, A., Toksoy, A., Krampert, M., Goebeler, M., Gillitzer, R., Israel, A., Krieg, T., Rajewsky, K., Haase, I. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Deletion of IKK2 in hepatocytes does not sensitize these cells to TNF-induced apoptosis but protects from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Luedde, T., Assmus, U., Wüstefeld, T., Meyer zu Vilsendorf, A., Roskams, T., Schmidt-Supprian, M., Rajewsky, K., Brenner, D.A., Manns, M.P., Pasparakis, M., Trautwein, C. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The IKK-2/Ikappa Balpha /NF-kappa B pathway plays a key role in the regulation of CCR3 and eotaxin-1 in fibroblasts. A critical link to dermatitis in Ikappa Balpha -deficient mice. Huber, M.A., Denk, A., Peter, R.U., Weber, L., Kraut, N., Wirth, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. IKKbeta/NF-kappaB activation causes severe muscle wasting in mice. Cai, D., Frantz, J.D., Tawa, N.E., Melendez, P.A., Oh, B.C., Lidov, H.G., Hasselgren, P.O., Frontera, W.R., Lee, J., Glass, D.J., Shoelson, S.E. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. IKKbeta couples hepatocyte death to cytokine-driven compensatory proliferation that promotes chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Maeda, S., Kamata, H., Luo, J.L., Leffert, H., Karin, M. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Conditional disruption of IkappaB kinase 2 fails to prevent obesity-induced insulin resistance. Röhl, M., Pasparakis, M., Baudler, S., Baumgartl, J., Gautam, D., Huth, M., De Lorenzi, R., Krone, W., Rajewsky, K., Brüning, J.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Binding of manumycin A inhibits IkappaB kinase beta activity. Bernier, M., Kwon, Y.K., Pandey, S.K., Zhu, T.N., Zhao, R.J., Maciuk, A., He, H.J., Decabo, R., Kole, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel IKK-beta inhibitors. Part 3: Orally active anti-inflammatory agents. Murata, T., Shimada, M., Sakakibara, S., Yoshino, T., Masuda, T., Shintani, T., Sato, H., Koriyama, Y., Fukushima, K., Nunami, N., Yamauchi, M., Fuchikami, K., Komura, H., Watanabe, A., Ziegelbauer, K.B., Bacon, K.B., Lowinger, T.B. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Severe liver degeneration in mice lacking the IkappaB kinase 2 gene. Li, Q., Van Antwerp, D., Mercurio, F., Lee, K.F., Verma, I.M. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. The IKKbeta subunit of IkappaB kinase (IKK) is essential for nuclear factor kappaB activation and prevention of apoptosis. Li, Z.W., Chu, W., Hu, Y., Delhase, M., Deerinck, T., Ellisman, M., Johnson, R., Karin, M. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. IKK beta is required for peripheral B cell survival and proliferation. Li, Z.W., Omori, S.A., Labuda, T., Karin, M., Rickert, R.C. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Mature T cells depend on signaling through the IKK complex. Schmidt-Supprian, M., Courtois, G., Tian, J., Coyle, A.J., Israël, A., Rajewsky, K., Pasparakis, M. Immunity (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Embryonic lethality, liver degeneration, and impaired NF-kappa B activation in IKK-beta-deficient mice. Tanaka, M., Fuentes, M.E., Yamaguchi, K., Durnin, M.H., Dalrymple, S.A., Hardy, K.L., Goeddel, D.V. Immunity (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. I{kappa}B kinase (IKK){beta}, but not IKK{alpha}, is a critical mediator of osteoclast survival and is required for inflammation-induced bone loss. Ruocco, M.G., Maeda, S., Park, J.M., Lawrence, T., Hsu, L.C., Cao, Y., Schett, G., Wagner, E.F., Karin, M. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential regulation of IkappaB kinase alpha and beta by two upstream kinases, NF-kappaB-inducing kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase kinase-1. Nakano, H., Shindo, M., Sakon, S., Nishinaka, S., Mihara, M., Yagita, H., Okumura, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. betaTrCP-mediated proteolysis of NF-kappaB1 p105 requires phosphorylation of p105 serines 927 and 932. Lang, V., Janzen, J., Fischer, G.Z., Soneji, Y., Beinke, S., Salmeron, A., Allen, H., Hay, R.T., Ben-Neriah, Y., Ley, S.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Local and systemic insulin resistance resulting from hepatic activation of IKK-beta and NF-kappaB. Cai, D., Yuan, M., Frantz, D.F., Melendez, P.A., Hansen, L., Lee, J., Shoelson, S.E. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. IkappaB-kinasebeta-dependent NF-kappaB activation provides radioprotection to the intestinal epithelium. Egan, L.J., Eckmann, L., Greten, F.R., Chae, S., Li, Z.W., Myhre, G.M., Robine, S., Karin, M., Kagnoff, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. IKKbeta is required for prevention of apoptosis mediated by cell-bound but not by circulating TNFalpha. Maeda, S., Chang, L., Li, Z.W., Luo, J.L., Leffert, H., Karin, M. Immunity (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Dipyridamole activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 mediates inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Chen, T.H., Kao, Y.C., Chen, B.C., Chen, C.H., Chan, P., Lee, H.M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Enhanced NF-kappaB activation and cellular function in macrophages lacking IkappaB kinase 1 (IKK1). Li, Q., Lu, Q., Bottero, V., Estepa, G., Morrison, L., Mercurio, F., Verma, I.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. A novel NF-kappaB pathway involving IKKbeta and p65/RelA Ser-536 phosphorylation results in p53 Inhibition in the absence of NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Jeong, S.J., Pise-Masison, C.A., Radonovich, M.F., Park, H.U., Brady, J.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. A novel IKKbeta inhibitor stimulates adiponectin levels and ameliorates obesity-linked insulin resistance. Kamon, J., Yamauchi, T., Muto, S., Takekawa, S., Ito, Y., Hada, Y., Ogawa, W., Itai, A., Kasuga, M., Tobe, K., Kadowaki, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Defective osteoclastogenesis by IKKbeta-null precursors is a result of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced JNK-dependent apoptosis and impaired differentiation. Otero, J.E., Dai, S., Foglia, D., Alhawagri, M., Vacher, J., Pasparakis, M., Abu-Amer, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  25. Loss of hepatic NF-kappa B activity enhances chemical hepatocarcinogenesis through sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 activation. Sakurai, T., Maeda, S., Chang, L., Karin, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Ikappab kinase-beta (ikkbeta) modulation of epithelial sodium channel activity. Lebowitz, J., Edinger, R.S., An, B., Perry, C.J., Onate, S., Kleyman, T.R., Johnson, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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