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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pre-clinical safety evaluation of novel nucleoside analogue-based dual-function microbicides (WHI-05 and WHI-07).

Compounds WHI-05 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-methoxyphenyl)-methoxyalaninyl phosphate] and WHI-07 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxyalaninyl phosphate] are aryl phosphate derivatives of zidovudine (ZDV) with anti-HIV and contraceptive activity. WHI-05 and WHI-07 differ fundamentally from currently used surfactant microbicides that are cytotoxic to genital tract epithelial cells at spermicidal concentrations. These drugs were rationally designed to bypass the thymidine kinase dependency of ZDV activation in genital tract secretions, as well as to achieve spermicidal activity. WHI-05 and WHI-07 were formulated via a non-toxic gel-microemulsion for intravaginal use as potential anti-HIV spermicides. Pre-clinical safety studies of intravaginally administered WHI-05 and WHI-07 gel-microemulsions were performed in mice and rabbits to mimic closely the intravaginal application of a microbicidal preparation in women. In addition, systemic toxicity studies were performed in mice and non-human primates. The LD10 doses for WHI-05 and WHI-07 when administered intravenously or intraperitoneally were >500 mg/kg for mice. Female cynomolgus monkeys treated with 20 mg/kg WHI-05 and WHI-07 intravenously developed no grade 2-4 systemic toxicities. Repetitive intravaginal administration of 2% WHI-05 and WHI-07 via a gel-microemulsion to achieve concentrations as high as 6.1 x 10(4) and 5.7 x 10(6) times their respective in vitro anti-HIV IC50 values, and 1200 and 5700 times their spermicidal EC50 values, for up to 13 weeks, was not associated with mucosal, systemic or reproductive toxicity. Furthermore, long-term (2 years) intravaginal administration of 2% WHI-07 gel-microemulsion was not associated with systemic toxicity or increased carcinogenicity in mice. The improved potency, as well as the lack of mucosal, systemic and reproductive toxicity of WHI-05 and WHI-07, means that these compounds have clinical potential as safe, prophylactic contraceptives in addition to their microbicide activity to curb the sexual transmission of HIV.[1]


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