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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of gp120 binding sites on CXCR4 by using CD4-independent human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Env proteins.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian ( SIV) immunodeficiency virus entry is mediated by binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to CD4 and chemokine receptors, CCR5 and/or CXCR4. CD4 induces extensive conformational changes that expose and/or induce formation of a chemokine receptor binding site on gp120. CD4-independent Env's of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and SIV have been identified that exhibit exposed chemokine receptor binding sites and can bind directly to CCR5 or CXCR4 in the absence of CD4. While many studies have examined determinants for gp120-CCR5 binding, analysis of gp120-CXCR4 binding has been hindered by the apparently lower affinity of this interaction for X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates. We show here that gp120 proteins from two CD4-independent HIV-2 Env's, VCP and ROD/B, bind directly to CXCR4 with an apparently high affinity. By use of CXCR4 N-terminal deletion constructs, CXCR4-CXCR2 chimeras, and human-rat CXCR4 chimeras, binding determinants were shown to reside in the amino (N) terminus, extracellular loop 2 (ECL2), and ECL3. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of charged residues, tyrosines, and phenylalanines in extracellular CXCR4 domains implicated multiple amino acids in the N terminus (E14/E15, D20, Y21, and D22), ECL2 (D187, R188, F189, Y190, and D193), and ECL3 (D262, E268, E277, and E282) in binding, although minor differences were noted between VCP and ROD/B. However, mutations in CXCR4 that markedly reduced binding did not necessarily hinder cell-cell fusion by VCP or ROD/B, especially in the presence of CD4. These gp120 proteins will be useful in dissecting determinants for CXCR4 binding and Env triggering and in evaluating pharmacologic inhibitors of the gp120-CXCR4 interaction.[1]


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