The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

IL-4 induces apoptosis in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells: evidence for the pivotal role of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid binding to activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcription factor.

The proinflammatory cytokine IL-4 is secreted in large amounts during allergic inflammatory response in asthma and plays a pivotal role in the airway inflammation. IL-4 has been shown to up-regulate 15-lipoxygenase and produce 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) in A549 cells via the Janus kinase/STAT6 pathway under coactivation of CREB binding protein/p300. IL-4 has also been shown to up-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) nuclear receptors in macrophages and A549 cells. In this study we demonstrate that 15(S)-HETE binds to PPARgamma nuclear receptors and induces apoptosis in A549 cells. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor, prevented PPARgamma activation and apoptosis. The latter was accomplished by the interaction of the 15(S)-HETE/PPARgamma complex with the adapter protein Fas-associating protein with death domain and caspase-8, as shown by transfection of Fas-associating protein with death domain dominant negative vector and cleavage of caspase 8 to active subunits p41/42 and p18. Whereas IL-4 and PPARgamma ligands failed to induce cleavage of Bid and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, they caused translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytoplasm to mitochondria with a concomitant decrease in the Bcl-x(L) level. We therefore believe that in unstimulated cells Bcl-x(L) and Bax form a heterodimer, in which Bcl-x(L) dominates and prevents the induction of apoptosis, whereas in IL-4-stimulated cells the 15(S)-HETE/PPARgamma complex down-regulates Bcl-x(L), and the resulting overweight of Bax commits the cell to apoptosis via caspase-3. However, this pathway does not rule out the direct caspase-8-mediated activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, IL-4-induced apoptosis may contribute to severe loss of alveolar structures and infiltration of eosinophils, mononuclear phagocytes, etc., into the lung tissue of chronic asthma patients.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities