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Disease relevance of Overweight

  • In these latter, overweight is associated with marked impairment of spontaneous and stimulated GH release, while acute dietary restriction and chronic undernutrition induce an amplification of spontaneous secretion together with a clear-cut decrease in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plasma levels [1].
  • Comparison of weight reduction with metoprolol in treatment of hypertension in young overweight patients [2].
  • The use of insulin in patients with NIDDM is controversial, especially in patients who are overweight, overeating, and minimally symptomatic [3].
  • These findings suggest that weight control in overweight individuals may be a more effective strategy for prevention of NIDDM in men than in women, whereas prevention of obesity may prevent diabetes in both sexes [4].
  • Insulin secretion and in vivo insulin action were quantified in nonobese and moderately obese patients (approximately 30% overweight) with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), matched for severity of diabetes [5].

Psychiatry related information on Overweight

  • Women who developed dementia between ages 79 and 88 years were overweight, with a higher average BMI at age 70 years (27.7 vs 25.7; P =.007), 75 years (27.9 vs 25.0; P<.001), and 79 years (26.9 vs 25.1; P =.02) compared with nondemented women [6].
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to test whether carbohydrate dietary modifications improve insulin sensitivity and secretion and glucose tolerance in overweight or obese persons with the metabolic syndrome, even in the absence of weight loss [7].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore relationships of smoking and risk drinking status, nicotine and alcohol dependence, and anxiety, depressive, and somatoform disorders with overweight and obesity [8].
  • Effects of switching from olanzapine to risperidone on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in overweight or obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: analysis of a multicenter, rater-blinded, open-label study [9].
  • RESULTS: Obese and overweight girls had significantly lower physical appearance and athletic competence self-esteem than their normal weight peers [10].

High impact information on Overweight

  • METHODS: We modified our randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of dexfenfluramine to include echocardiographic examinations of 1072 overweight patients within a median of one month after the discontinuation of treatment [11].
  • We tested the hypothesis that exercise (walking or jogging) will increase HDL cholesterol levels in moderately overweight, sedentary people who adopt a hypocaloric NCEP diet [12].
  • Here we show that 5-HT2C receptor-deficient mice are overweight as a result of abnormal control of feeding behaviour, establishing a role for this receptor in the serotonergic control of appetite [13].
  • The inverse relation of exercise to risk of NIDDM was particularly pronounced among overweight men [14].
  • Borderline hypertensive subjects had significant abnormalities in other coronary risk factors (cholesterol levels were 0.39 mmol/L higher, triglyceride levels were 0.45 mmol/L higher, high-density lipoprotein levels were 0.08 mmol/L lower, insulin levels were 38 pmol/L higher, and 16.5% more of them were overweight) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Overweight

  • The incidence of diabetes in 602 high-risk (previous transient gestational glucose intolerance) participants was significantly higher for overweight subjects (46.7%) than for those of normal weight (25.6%) [16].
  • Estradiol was 25% greater for the overweight lean group (40 +/- 5 pg/ml) than the obese (30 +/- 3 pg/ml) and normal groups (29 +/- 2 pg/ml), P = 0.08, whereas total testosterone was significantly lower in the obese (499 +/- 33 ng/dl) compared with the normal and overweight, lean groups (759 +/- 98 and 797 +/- 82 ng/dl) [17].
  • Among women who were both overweight and sedentary, a high glycemic load was associated with an RR of 2.67 (95% CI = 1.02 to 6.99; highest versus lowest quartile of intake; P for trend =.03), and high fructose was associated with an RR of 3.17 (95% CI = 1.13 to 8.91; P for trend =.04) [18].
  • Within a behavioral self-management treatment program for overweight, 59 patients were randomly assigned to receive as an adjunct either dextroamphetamine sulfate, fenfluramine hydrochloride, or placebo in a double-blind procedure [19].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We used Cox regression models to explore the effects of gemfibrozil among overweight subjects with additional coronary risk factors in this hypercholesterolemic male population of 2046 subjects randomized to gemfibrozil and 2035 to placebo [20].
  • Adverse effects of overweight on blood pressure and cholesterol levels could account for about 45% of the increased risk of CHD [21].
  • Overweight people with normal plasma lipids have normal glucose and insulin metabolism, low levels of inflammatory markers, and normal blood pressure [22].

Biological context of Overweight


Anatomical context of Overweight


Gene context of Overweight

  • The APOA1/C3/A4 locus may account for approximately 8% of the difference between baseline and total possible risk of NIDDM in overweight individuals [33].
  • METHODS: Serum VEGF concentrations were measured in 38 overweight or obese subjects [34].
  • In overweight subjects, a decreased sensitivity to ACTH/MSH peptides may derive from alterations at the level of the melanocortin receptor or at subsequent steps in the processing of the body fat signal [35].
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator, and fibrinogen: Effect of dieting with or without exercise in overweight postmenopausal women [36].
  • In 15 obese children, whose percentage of overweight declined during therapy, CETP levels decreased significantly [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Overweight


  1. Nutritional status in the neuroendocrine control of growth hormone secretion: the model of anorexia nervosa. Scacchi, M., Ida Pincelli, A., Cavagnini, F. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of weight reduction with metoprolol in treatment of hypertension in young overweight patients. MacMahon, S.W., Macdonald, G.J., Bernstein, L., Andrews, G., Blacket, R.B. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Diabetes control and complications. Crofford, O.B. Annu. Rev. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Rate of weight gain, weight fluctuation, and incidence of NIDDM. Hanson, R.L., Narayan, K.M., McCance, D.R., Pettitt, D.J., Jacobsson, L.T., Bennett, P.H., Knowler, W.C. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of insulin secretion and in vivo insulin action in nonobese and moderately obese individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Reaven, G.M., Doberne, L., Greenfield, M.S. Diabetes (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. An 18-year follow-up of overweight and risk of Alzheimer disease. Gustafson, D., Rothenberg, E., Blennow, K., Steen, B., Skoog, I. Arch. Intern. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Dietary carbohydrate modification enhances insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome. Laaksonen, D.E., Toppinen, L.K., Juntunen, K.S., Autio, K., Liukkonen, K.H., Poutanen, K.S., Niskanen, L., Mykkänen, H.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Relationships of psychiatric disorders with overweight and obesity in an adult general population. John, U., Meyer, C., Rumpf, H.J., Hapke, U. Obes. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of switching from olanzapine to risperidone on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in overweight or obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: analysis of a multicenter, rater-blinded, open-label study. Meyer, J.M., Pandina, G., Bossie, C.A., Turkoz, I., Greenspan, A. Clinical therapeutics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Fat, plain, but not friendless: self-esteem and peer acceptance of obese pre-adolescent girls. Phillips, R.G., Hill, A.J. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. An assessment of heart-valve abnormalities in obese patients taking dexfenfluramine, sustained-release dexfenfluramine, or placebo. Sustained-Release Dexfenfluramine Study Group. Weissman, N.J., Tighe, J.F., Gottdiener, J.S., Gwynne, J.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet, with or without exercise, in overweight men and women. Wood, P.D., Stefanick, M.L., Williams, P.T., Haskell, W.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Eating disorder and epilepsy in mice lacking 5-HT2c serotonin receptors. Tecott, L.H., Sun, L.M., Akana, S.F., Strack, A.M., Lowenstein, D.H., Dallman, M.F., Julius, D. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. A prospective study of exercise and incidence of diabetes among US male physicians. Manson, J.E., Nathan, D.M., Krolewski, A.S., Stampfer, M.J., Willett, W.C., Hennekens, C.H. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. The association of borderline hypertension with target organ changes and higher coronary risk. Tecumseh Blood Pressure study. Julius, S., Jamerson, K., Mejia, A., Krause, L., Schork, N., Jones, K. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Body weight and subsequent diabetes mellitus. O'Sullivan, J.B. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Body composition, not body weight, is related to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex hormone levels in men. Segal, K.R., Dunaif, A., Gutin, B., Albu, J., Nyman, A., Pi-Sunyer, F.X. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Dietary sugar, glycemic load, and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective study. Michaud, D.S., Liu, S., Giovannucci, E., Willett, W.C., Colditz, G.A., Fuchs, C.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Double-blind evaluation of reinforcing and anorectic actions of weight control medications. Interaction of pharmacological and behavioral treatments. Bigelow, G.E., Griffiths, R.R., Liebson, I., Kaliszak, J.E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Some coronary risk factors related to the insulin resistance syndrome and treatment with gemfibrozil. Experience from the Helsinki Heart Study. Tenkanen, L., Mänttäri, M., Manninen, V. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Association of overweight with increased risk of coronary heart disease partly independent of blood pressure and cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies including more than 300 000 persons. Bogers, R.P., Bemelmans, W.J., Hoogenveen, R.T., Boshuizen, H.C., Woodward, M., Knekt, P., van Dam, R.M., Hu, F.B., Visscher, T.L., Menotti, A., Thorpe, R.J., Jamrozik, K., Calling, S., Strand, B.H., Shipley, M.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Serum insulin and inflammatory markers in overweight individuals with and without dyslipidemia. Barter, P., McPherson, Y.R., Song, K., Kesäniemi, Y.A., Mahley, R., Waeber, G., Bersot, T., Mooser, V., Waterworth, D., Grundy, S.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Impact of obesity on metabolism in men and women. Importance of regional adipose tissue distribution. Krotkiewski, M., Björntorp, P., Sjöström, L., Smith, U. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Abdominal fat and insulin resistance in normal and overweight women: Direct measurements reveal a strong relationship in subjects at both low and high risk of NIDDM. Carey, D.G., Jenkins, A.B., Campbell, L.V., Freund, J., Chisholm, D.J. Diabetes (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of major quantitative trait loci controlling body weight variation in ob/ob mice. Stoehr, J.P., Byers, J.E., Clee, S.M., Lan, H., Boronenkov, I.V., Schueler, K.L., Yandell, B.S., Attie, A.D. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Proteome analysis of skeletal muscle from obese and morbidly obese women. Hittel, D.S., Hathout, Y., Hoffman, E.P., Houmard, J.A. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. The effects of a low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Barnard, N.D., Scialli, A.R., Turner-McGrievy, G., Lanou, A.J., Glass, J. Am. J. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. Gaullier, J.M., Halse, J., Høye, K., Kristiansen, K., Fagertun, H., Vik, H., Gudmundsen, O. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of family history of type 2 diabetes on the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in normal-weight, overweight, and obese glucose-tolerant young adults. Pannacciulli, N., De Pergola, G., Ciccone, M., Rizzon, P., Giorgino, F., Giorgino, R. Diabetes Care (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Relationship between visceral fat and PAI-1 in overweight men and women before and after weight loss. Kockx, M., Leenen, R., Seidell, J., Princen, H.M., Kooistra, T. Thromb. Haemost. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. CYP17 MspA1 polymorphism and risk of biliary tract cancers and gallstones: a population-based study in Shanghai, China. Hou, L., Xu, J., Gao, Y.T., Rashid, A., Zheng, S.L., Sakoda, L.C., Shen, M.C., Wang, B.S., Deng, J., Han, T.Q., Zhang, B.H., Meyers, D.A., Fraumeni, J.F., Hsing, A.W. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Lipoprotein lipase gene variation is associated with adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity, and lipoprotein lipid and glucose concentrations in overweight postmenopausal women. Nicklas, B.J., Ferrell, R.E., Rogus, E.M., Berman, D.M., Ryan, A.S., Dennis, K.E., Goldberg, A.P. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Insulin-receptor and apolipoprotein genes contribute to development of NIDDM in Chinese Americans. Xiang, K.S., Cox, N.J., Sanz, N., Huang, P., Karam, J.H., Bell, G.I. Diabetes (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor is associated with visceral fat accumulation in human obese subjects. Miyazawa-Hoshimoto, S., Takahashi, K., Bujo, H., Hashimoto, N., Saito, Y. Diabetologia (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Overweight humans are resistant to the weight-reducing effects of melanocortin4-10. Hallschmid, M., Smolnik, R., McGregor, G., Born, J., Fehm, H.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator, and fibrinogen: Effect of dieting with or without exercise in overweight postmenopausal women. Svendsen, O.L., Hassager, C., Christiansen, C., Nielsen, J.D., Winther, K. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Increased serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein in obese children. Asayama, K., Hayashibe, H., Dobashi, K., Uchida, N., Nakane, T., Kodera, K., Shirahata, A. Obes. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Subclinical late cardiomyopathy after doxorubicin therapy for lymphoma in adults. Hequet, O., Le, Q.H., Moullet, I., Pauli, E., Salles, G., Espinouse, D., Dumontet, C., Thieblemont, C., Arnaud, P., Antal, D., Bouafia, F., Coiffier, B. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Hypertension and overweight associated with hyperinsulinaemia and glucose tolerance: a longitudinal study of the Finnish and Dutch cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Feskens, E.J., Tuomilehto, J., Stengård, J.H., Pekkanen, J., Nissinen, A., Kromhout, D. Diabetologia (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Evidence for an association of high blood pressure and hyperinsulinemia in obese man. Manicardi, V., Camellini, L., Bellodi, G., Coscelli, C., Ferrannini, E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  41. Weight-loss practices of overweight adults. Bennett, E.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
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