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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Up-regulation of muscle uncoupling protein 3 gene expression in mice following high fat diet, dietary vitamin A supplementation and acute retinoic acid-treatment.

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of vitamin A supplementation of both a normal fat (NF) diet and a high fat (HF) diet and of acute retinoic acid (RA)-treatment on the expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in mice. DESIGN: C57BL/6J mice were fed for 18 weeks a NF or a HF diet (10 and 45 energy% as fat, respectively), both with the normal vitamin A content or an excess vitamin A (8 mg and 320 mg retinyl palmitate/kg diet, respectively). Body weight and energy intake were recorded periodically. UCP3 mRNA and UCP3 protein levels in skeletal muscle (soleus/gastrocnemius) were analysed, as well as UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA levels in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), and UCP2 mRNA, UCP2 protein and leptin mRNA levels in white adipose tissue (WAT) depots. The effect of acute RA-treatment (100 mg/kg/day, 4 days) on UCP3 mRNA levels in skeletal muscle and BAT of NMRI mice was also assessed. RESULTS: Vitamin A supplementation of a NF diet led to increased levels of UCP3 mRNA and UCP3 protein in muscle, UCP1 mRNA in BAT, and UCP2 mRNA in inguinal WAT, but had no impact on body weight or adiposity of B6 mice. HF diet promoted obesity and increased levels of UCP3 mRNA and UCP3 protein in skeletal muscle, and of the mRNAs for all three UCPs in BAT. Supplementing the HF diet with vitamin A had little effect on the final obesity reached and did not lead to further increases of muscle UCP3 mRNA nor BAT UCP1 mRNA over the levels achieved with the non-supplemented HF diet. Adipose leptin mRNA levels were down regulated after vitamin A supplementation, independently of the fat content of the diet. Up-regulation of muscle, but not BAT, UCP3 mRNA levels was also found after acute RA-treatment in NMRI mice. CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence of a stimulatory effect of retinoids on muscle UCP3 expression in vivo, and a differential retinoid-regulation of the UCP3 gene in muscle and BAT.[1]


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