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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Response of the fetal sheep bladder to urinary diversion.

PURPOSE: In adults urinary diversion results in bladder atrophy and a rapid decrease in contractile function. Little is known about the effects of urinary diversion on bladder development. In this regard we characterized the responses of fetal sheep bladder strips obtained from animals that underwent urinary diversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urinary diversion was performed on fetal sheep after 90 days of gestation (term 147 days) and bladder tissue was obtained 2 weeks later. Contractile and relaxant responses of full-thickness bladder strips were tested. RESULTS: Bladders from fetal sheep subjected to urinary diversion weighed significantly less than control fetal bladders. Histological studies demonstrated marked connective tissue infiltration and the reorganization of smooth muscle elements. Carbachol stimulated a tonic contraction, while field stimulation administered during the tonic contraction elicited a phasic relaxation or a biphasic response, consisting of an initial relaxation and then a phasic contraction in control and diverted bladders. Contractile responses of defunctionalized strips to carbachol were significantly less than those of control bladder strips. Contractile responses of defunctionalized bladder strips to field stimulation at 1 Hz. were significantly greater than those of control strips. Responses of the 2 sets of fetal bladder strips to higher frequencies were similar, as were the contractile responses to adenosine triphosphate and KCl. Field stimulated relaxations in the presence of carbachol stimulated contraction of defunctionalized bladder strips were significantly greater than those of control strips, while the relaxant responses of each set of fetal bladder strips to isoproterenol and nitroprusside were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary diversion in normal fetal sheep resulted in marked structural changes, reduced carbachol stimulation and increased field stimulation relaxation.[1]


  1. Response of the fetal sheep bladder to urinary diversion. Matsumoto, S., Kogan, B.A., Levin, R.M., Howard, P.S., Macarak, E.J. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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