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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Laser photocoagulation alters the pattern of staining for neurotrophin-4, GFAP, and CD68 in human retina.

AIMS: To investigate the staining pattern of neurotrophin-3 ( NT3), neurotrophin-4 (NT4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as well as glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and CD68 in lasered human retina. METHODS: Retinal laser photocoagulation was performed on four patients (two males, two females) with choroidal malignant melanoma 1-6 days before enucleation. Three other enucleated eyes with malignant melanoma and three normal cadaveric donor eyes were used as controls. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the pattern of staining of NT3, NT4, BDNF, GFAP, and CD68 in 7 mm sections of fixed specimens. RESULTS: Expression of NT4 was detected in the inner and outer nuclear layers of all the retinal sections examined but no NT3 and BDNF staining was seen. NT4 staining was found to be less intense in lasered and melanoma controls compared to normal cadaveric donor retinas. There was an upregulation of GFAP expression in both lasered and control eyes with melanoma in comparison with normal controls. CD68 staining was only observed in retinal pigment epithelium and choroid of lasered eyes. CONCLUSION: NT4 is expressed in inner and outer nuclear layers of normal human retina and its expression is downregulated following laser photocoagulation. This occurs in parallel with an increased expression of GFAP suggesting that reactive changes in Muller cells may be responsible for reduced NT4 staining. Expression of CD68 at the site of laser injury is consistent with a wound healing process as a response to local damage.[1]


  1. Laser photocoagulation alters the pattern of staining for neurotrophin-4, GFAP, and CD68 in human retina. Ghazi-Nouri, S.M., Assi, A., Limb, G.A., Scott, R.A., von Bussmann, K., Humphrey, I., Luthert, P.J., Charteris, D.G. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2003) [Pubmed]
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