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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Choroid


Psychiatry related information on Choroid


High impact information on Choroid

  • Atrial natriuretic peptide neurons probably also alter fluid movement in the choroid plexus and in other brain vascular beds [10].
  • Gyrate atrophy of choroid and retina: deficient activity of ornithine ketoacid aminotransferase in cultured skin fibroblasts [11].
  • RPE or choroidal endothelial production of Ccl-2 induced by complement C5a and IgG may mediate choroidal macrophage infiltration into aged wild-type choroids [12].
  • A leptin receptor was recently cloned from choroid plexus and shown to map to the same 6-cM interval on mouse chromosome 4 as db [13].
  • Adult liver, however, transcribes IGF2 from promoter P1, and it has been suggested that the recruitment of P1 may be responsible for the absence of imprinting in human liver, and in choroid plexus and leptomeninges [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Choroid


Biological context of Choroid

  • To determine which regions of the original constructs are important for this tumorigenesis, we have now tested several derivatives and report here that the large-T antigen is sufficient, that the MT fusion gene is dispensable and that the SV40 enhancer (72-base-pair repeat region) has an important role in directing tumours to the choroid plexus [20].
  • Except for the choroid plexus and the cerebellum, the close similarity observed in numerous rat brain areas between the distribution of enkephalinase and that of mu and/or delta opioid binding sites could account for most of the pharmacological effects elicited by enkephalinase inhibitors [21].
  • Intercellular adhesion molecule 1, but not vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 or mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1, was expressed in choroid plexus and subarachnoid space vessels [22].
  • The fused gene is expressed highly in ependymal cells and the choroid plexus, tissues involved in the production and circulation of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), suggesting that loss of mFu disrupts CSF homeostasis [23].
  • The mottled gene is expressed in all tissues throughout embryogenesis and is particularly strong in the choroid plexuses of the brain [24].

Anatomical context of Choroid

  • Choroideraemia (tapetochoroidal dystrophy, TCD), a common form of X-linked blindness, is characterized by progressive dystrophy of the choroid, retinal pigment epithelium and retina [25].
  • SV40 large-T antigen protein and messenger RNA are always present in affected tissues at much greater concentrations than in unaffected tissues, suggesting that SV40 early-region genes are preferentially activated in choroid plexus, thymus and kidney and that this activation frequently leads to tumorigenesis in the choroid plexus [20].
  • Biochemical evidence supporting the sympathetic control of cerebrospinal fluid production has been obtained through identification of a specific beta-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in the choroid plexus [26].
  • GH receptors in the hypothalamus are likely to be involved in the regulatory mechanism for hormone secretion and those located in the choroid plexus have been suggested to have a role in the receptor-mediated transport of GH across the BBB [27].
  • Progressing dorsoventrally, Lmx1a and Gdf7 expression identifies the primordium for hindbrain choroid plexus epithelial cells; Math1, for mossy fiber neurons; and immediately ventral to Math1 yet within Wnt1(+) territory, a climbing fiber primordium dominated by Ngn1-expressing cells [28].

Associations of Choroid with chemical compounds


Gene context of Choroid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Choroid


  1. Supplementary creatine as a treatment for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. Sipilä, I., Rapola, J., Simell, O., Vannas, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. DNA sequences similar to those of simian virus 40 in ependymomas and choroid plexus tumors of childhood. Bergsagel, D.J., Finegold, M.J., Butel, J.S., Kupsky, W.J., Garcea, R.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Cell-specific regulation of agrin RNA splicing in the chick ciliary ganglion. Smith, M.A., O'Dowd, D.K. Neuron (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Independent degeneration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in conditional knockout mouse models of choroideremia. Tolmachova, T., Anders, R., Abrink, M., Bugeon, L., Dallman, M.J., Futter, C.E., Ramalho, J.S., Tonagel, F., Tanimoto, N., Seeliger, M.W., Huxley, C., Seabra, M.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Correction of ornithine accumulation prevents retinal degeneration in a mouse model of gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. Wang, T., Steel, G., Milam, A.H., Valle, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. OB protein binds specifically to the choroid plexus of mice and rats. Devos, R., Richards, J.G., Campfield, L.A., Tartaglia, L.A., Guisez, Y., van der Heyden, J., Travernier, J., Plaetinck, G., Burn, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Choroido-cerebral calcification syndrome with retardation. Singh, B., Jamil, A., al-Shahwan, S.A., Sharif, H., al-Deeb, S.M., Biary, N. Neurology (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Increase in vasopressin binding sites in the human choroid plexus in Alzheimer's disease. Korting, C., van Zwieten, E.J., Boer, G.J., Ravid, R., Swaab, D.F. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of dopamine antagonism on the behavioral and hemodynamic responses to cocaine in piglets. Monitto, C.L., Feuer, P., O'Rourke, M., Shaw, L., Kurth, C.D. Biol. Neonate (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Atrial natriuretic peptide in brain and pituitary gland. Gutkowska, J., Antunes-Rodrigues, J., McCann, S.M. Physiol. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Gyrate atrophy of choroid and retina: deficient activity of ornithine ketoacid aminotransferase in cultured skin fibroblasts. Kennaway, N.G., Weleber, R.G., Buist, N.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. An animal model of age-related macular degeneration in senescent Ccl-2- or Ccr-2-deficient mice. Ambati, J., Anand, A., Fernandez, S., Sakurai, E., Lynn, B.C., Kuziel, W.A., Rollins, B.J., Ambati, B.K. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Abnormal splicing of the leptin receptor in diabetic mice. Lee, G.H., Proenca, R., Montez, J.M., Carroll, K.M., Darvishzadeh, J.G., Lee, J.I., Friedman, J.M. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Promoter-specific imprinting of the human insulin-like growth factor-II gene. Vu, T.H., Hoffman, A.R. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Pyridoxine effects on ornithine ketoacid transaminase activity in fibroblasts from carriers of two forms of gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. Shih, V.E., Mandell, R., Berson, E.L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Anticonvulsant prolongation of survival in adult murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis. II. Ultrastructural observations of pathogenetic events. Walker, D.H., Camenga, D.L., Whitfield, S., Murphy, F.A. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. A nitric oxide/cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase pathway alters transmitter release and inhibition by somatostatin at a site downstream of calcium entry. Gray, D.B., Polo-Parada, L., Pilar, G.R., Eang, P., Metzger, R.R., Klann, E., Meriney, S.D. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Nicotine increases size and severity of experimental choroidal neovascularization. Suñer, I.J., Espinosa-Heidmann, D.G., Marin-Castano, M.E., Hernandez, E.P., Pereira-Simon, S., Cousins, S.W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of melanocyte stimulating hormone on human cultured choroidal melanocytes, uveal melanoma cells, and retinal epithelial cells. Goodall, T., Buffey, J.A., Rennie, I.G., Benson, M., Parsons, M.A., Faulkner, M.K., MacNeil, S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. SV40 enhancer and large-T antigen are instrumental in development of choroid plexus tumours in transgenic mice. Palmiter, R.D., Chen, H.Y., Messing, A., Brinster, R.L. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Autoradiographic comparison of the distribution of the neutral endopeptidase "enkephalinase" and of mu and delta opioid receptors in rat brain. Waksman, G., Hamel, E., Fournié-Zaluski, M.C., Roques, B.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Human cerebrospinal fluid central memory CD4+ T cells: evidence for trafficking through choroid plexus and meninges via P-selectin. Kivisäkk, P., Mahad, D.J., Callahan, M.K., Trebst, C., Tucky, B., Wei, T., Wu, L., Baekkevold, E.S., Lassmann, H., Staugaitis, S.M., Campbell, J.J., Ransohoff, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Loss of the serine/threonine kinase fused results in postnatal growth defects and lethality due to progressive hydrocephalus. Merchant, M., Evangelista, M., Luoh, S.M., Frantz, G.D., Chalasani, S., Carano, R.A., van Hoy, M., Ramirez, J., Ogasawara, A.K., McFarland, L.M., Filvaroff, E.H., French, D.M., de Sauvage, F.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Developmental expression of the mouse mottled and toxic milk genes suggests distinct functions for the Menkes and Wilson disease copper transporters. Kuo, Y.M., Gitschier, J., Packman, S. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Cloning of a gene that is rearranged in patients with choroideraemia. Cremers, F.P., van de Pol, D.J., van Kerkhoff, L.P., Wieringa, B., Ropers, H.H. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Beta-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in secretory cells of choroid plexus. Nathanson, J.A. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Growth hormone in the brain: characteristics of specific brain targets for the hormone and their functional significance. Nyberg, F. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Hindbrain rhombic lip is comprised of discrete progenitor cell populations allocated by Pax6. Landsberg, R.L., Awatramani, R.B., Hunter, N.L., Farago, A.F., DiPietrantonio, H.J., Rodriguez, C.I., Dymecki, S.M. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Folate transport by the choroid plexus in vitro. Spector, R., Lorenzo, A.V. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Cerebral vessels have the capacity to transport sodium and potassium. Eisenberg, H.M., Suddith, R.L. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. Leukotriene C4 transport by the choroid plexus in vitro. Spector, R., Goetzl, E.J. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Vitamin B6 appears useful in treating choroid disorder. Gunby, P. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  33. Chemorepulsion of neuronal migration by Slit2 in the developing mammalian forebrain. Hu, H. Neuron (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. The subcellular distribution of chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related protein in the brain. Khurana, T.S., Watkins, S.C., Kunkel, L.M. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Choroid plexus epithelial expression of MDR1 P glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein contribute to the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid drug-permeability barrier. Rao, V.V., Dahlheimer, J.L., Bardgett, M.E., Snyder, A.Z., Finch, R.A., Sartorelli, A.C., Piwnica-Worms, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Aquaporins in the central nervous system. Venero, J.L., Vizuete, M.L., Machado, A., Cano, J. Prog. Neurobiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Deletion of a nuclease-sensitive region between the Igf2 and H19 genes leads to Igf2 misregulation and increased adiposity. Jones, B.K., Levorse, J., Tilghman, S.M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. The epithelial inward rectifier channel Kir7.1 displays unusual K+ permeation properties. Döring, F., Derst, C., Wischmeyer, E., Karschin, C., Schneggenburger, R., Daut, J., Karschin, A. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Identification of folate binding macromolecule in rabbit choroid plexus. Spector, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  40. Differential adhesion molecule requirements for immune surveillance and inflammatory recruitment. Carrithers, M.D., Visintin, I., Kang, S.J., Janeway, C.A. Brain (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. VIP enhances the differentiation of retinal pigment epithelium in culture: from cAMP and pp60(c-src) to melanogenesis and development of fluid transport capacity. Koh, S.M. Progress in retinal and eye research. (2000) [Pubmed]
  42. The immunopathophysiological effects of chronic serum sickness on rat choroid plexus, ciliary process and renal glomeruli. Peress, N.S., Miller, F., Palu, W. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1977) [Pubmed]
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