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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Yokonolide B, a novel inhibitor of auxin action, blocks degradation of AUX/IAA factors.

Yokonolide B (YkB; also known as A82548A), a spiroketal-macrolide, was isolated from Streptomyces diastatochromogenes B59 in a screen for inhibitors of beta-glucoronidase expression under the control of an auxin-responsive promoter in Arabidopsis. YkB inhibits the expression of auxin-inducible genes as shown using native and synthetic auxin promoters as well as using expression profiling of 8300 Arabidopsis gene probes but does not affect expression of an abscisic acid- and a gibberellin A3-inducible gene. The mechanism of action of YkB is to block AUX/IAA protein degradation; however, YkB is not a general proteasome inhibitor. YkB blocks auxin-dependent cell division and auxin-regulated epinastic growth mediated by auxin-binding protein 1. Gain of function mutants such as shy2-2, slr1, and axr2-1 encoding AUX/IAA transcriptional repressors and loss of function mutants encoding components of the ubiquitin-proteolytic pathway such as axr1-3 and tir1-1, which display increased AUX/IAAs protein stability, are less sensitive to YkB, although axr1 and tir1 mutants were sensitive to MG132, a general proteasome inhibitor, consistent with a site of action downstream of AXR1 and TIR. YkB-treated seedlings displayed similar phenotypes as dominant AUX/IAA mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that YkB acts to block AUX/IAA protein degradation upstream of AXR and TIR, links a shared element upstream of AUX/IAA protein stability to auxin-induced cell division/elongation and to auxin-binding protein 1, and provides a new tool to dissect auxin signal transduction.[1]


  1. Yokonolide B, a novel inhibitor of auxin action, blocks degradation of AUX/IAA factors. Hayashi, K., Jones, A.M., Ogino, K., Yamazoe, A., Oono, Y., Inoguchi, M., Kondo, H., Nozaki, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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