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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of anemia in multiple myeloma.

Anemia is a prominent feature of multiple myeloma (MM) and is commonly associated with clinical progression of MM. In addition to being affected by a number of pathogenetic events, including imbalance of the cytokine network, inappropriate erythropoietin ( EPO) levels, blood loss, and hemolysis, the erythroid matrix is chronically deteriorated by the malignant plasma cell clone that activates a cytotoxic mechanism directed at the erythroid progenitors. In particular, malignant plasma cells express very high levels of apoptogenic receptors, including both Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, which trigger apoptosis of immature erythroblasts by stimulating specific death receptors, namely Fas and the complex DR4/DR5. Erythroid cells also weakly express the transcription factor GATA-1, which drives erythroblast maturation by inhibiting apoptosis through antiapoptotic molecules such as EPO and Bcl-xL. This newly discovered pathogenetic mechanism of anemia in MM is based on persistent erythroblast cytotoxicity within the bone marrow that leads to progressive destruction of the erythroid matrix.[1]


  1. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of anemia in multiple myeloma. Silvestris, F., Tucci, M., Quatraro, C., Dammacco, F. Int. J. Hematol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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